Treaty with the Cherokee, 1791
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Treaty of Holston
July 2, 1791. | 7 Stat., 39. | Proclamation, Feb. 7, 1792
Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Vol. II (Treaties)
Compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler
Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904
Links to Paragraphs
Peace and friendship perpetual.
A Treaty of Peace and Friendship made and concluded between the President of the
United States of America, on the Part and Behalf of the said States, and the
undersigned Chiefs and Warriors of the Cherokee Nation of Indians, on the Part
and Behalf of the said nation. The parties being desirous of establishing permanent
peace and friendship between the United States and the said Cherokee Nation, and the
citizens and members thereof, and to remove the causes of war, by ascertaining their
limits and making other necessary, just and friendly arrangements: The President of
the United States, by William Blount, Governor of the territory of the United States
of America, south of the river Ohio, and Superintendant of Indian affairs for the
southern district, who is vested with full powers for these purposes, by and with
the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States: And the Cherokee Nation
by the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors representing the said nation, have agreed
to the following articles, namely:
Indians acknowledge protection of United States.
Prisoners to be restored.
Stipulation for a road.
United States to regulate trade.
No citizen to settle on Indian lands.
Nor hunt on the same.
Indians to deliver up criminals.
Citizens of United states committing crimes in Indian territory to be punished.
Cherokees to give notice of designs against United States.
United States to make presents.
Animosities to cease.
Increase of annual payment to Indians.
There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the
United States of America, and all the individuals composing the whole Cherokee
nation of Indians.
The undersigned Chiefs and Warriors, for themselves and all parts of the Cherokee
nation, do acknowledge themselves and the said Cherokee nation, to be under the
protection of the said United States of America, and of no other sovereign whosoever;
and they also stipulate that the said Cherokee nation will not hold any treaty with
any foreign power, individual state, or with individuals of any state.
The Cherokee nation shall deliver to the Governor of the territory of the United States
of America, south of the river Ohio, on or before the first day of April next, at this
place, all persons who are now prisoners, captured by them from any part of the United
States: And the United States shall on or before the same day, and at that same place,
restore to the Cherokees, all the prisoners now in captivity, which the citizens of the
United States have captured from them.
The boundary between the citizens of the United States and the Cherokee nation, is and
shall be as follows: Beginning at the top of the
Currahee mountain, where the Creek line passes it; thence a direct line to Tugelo river;
thence northeast to the Occunna mountain, and over the same along the South-Carolina
Indian boundary to the North-Carolina boundary; thence north to a point from which a
line is to be extended to the river Clinch, that shall pass the Holston at the ridge
which divides the waters running into Little River from those running into the
Tennessee; thence up the river Clinch to Campbells line, and along the same to the
top of Cumberland mountain; thence a direct line to the Cumberland river where the
Kentucky road crosses it; thence down the Cumberland river to a point from which a
south west line will strike the ridge which divides the waters of Cumberland from
those of Duck river, forty miles above Nashville; thence down the said ridge to a point
from whence a south west line will strike-the mouth of Duck river.
And in order to preclude forever all disputes relative to the said boundary, the same
shall be ascertained, and marked plainly by three persons appointed on the part of the
United States, and three Cherokees on the part of their nation. And in order to extinguish
forever all claims of the Cherokee nation or any part thereof, to any of the land lying
to the right of the line above described, beginning as aforesaid at the Currahee mountain,
it is hereby agreed, that in addition to the consideration heretofore made for the said
land, the United States will cause certain valuable goods, to be immediately delivered to
the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors, for the use of their nation; and the said United
States will also cause the sum of one thousand dollars to be paid annually to the said
Cherokee nation. And the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors, do hereby for themselves and
the whole Cherokee nation, their heirs and descendants, for the considerations
above-mentioned, release, quit-claim, relinquish and cede, all the land to the right of
the line described, and beginning as aforesaid.
It is stipulated and agreed, that the citizens and inhabitants of the United States,
shall have a free and unmolested use of a road from Washington district to Mero district,
and of the navigation of the Tennessee river.
It is agreed on the part of the Cherokees, that the United States shall have the sole
and exclusive right of regulating their trade.
The United States solemnly guarantee to the Cherokee nation, all their lands not hereby ceded.
If any citizen of the United States, or other person not being an Indian, shall settle
on any of the Cherokees lands, such person shall forfeit the protection of the United States,
and the Cherokees may punish him or not, as they please.
No citizen or inhabitant of the United States, shall attempt to hunt or destroy the game on
the lands of the Cherokees; nor shall any citizen or inhabitant go into the Cherokee country,
without a passport first obtained from the Governor of some one of the United States, or
territorial districts, or such other person as the President of the United States may from
time to time authorize to grant the same.
If any Cherokee Indian or Indians or person residing among them, or who shall take refuge
in their nation, shall steal a horse from, or commit a robbery or murder, or other capital
crime, on any citizens or inhabitants of the United States, the Cherokee nation shall be
bound to deliver him or them up, to be punished according to the laws of the United States.
If any citizen or inhabitant of the United States, or of either of the territorial districts
of the United States, shall go into any town, settlement or territory belonging to the
Cherokees, and shall there commit any crime upon, or trespass against the person or property
of any peaceable and friendly Indian or Indians, which if committed within the jurisdiction
of any state, or within the jurisdiction of either of the said districts, against a citizen
or white inhabitant thereof, would be punishable by the laws of such state or district, such
offender or offenders, shall be subject to the same punishment, and shall be proceeded
against in the same manner as if the offence had been committed within the jurisdiction of
the state or district to which he or they may belong, against a citizen or white inhabitant
In case of violence on the persons or property of the individuals of either party, neither
retaliation or reprisal shall be committed by the other, until satisfaction shall have been
demanded of the party of which the aggressor is, and shall have been refused.
The Cherokees shall give notice to the citizens of the United States, of any designs which
they may know, or suspect to be formed in any neighboring tribe, or by any person whatever,
against the peace and interest of the United States.
That the Cherokee nation may be led to a greater degree of civilization, and to become
herdsmen and cultivators, instead of remaining in a state of hunters, the United States
will from time to time furnish gratuitously the said nation with useful implements of
husbandry, and further to assist the said nation in so desirable a pursuit, and at the
same time to establish a certain mode of communication, the United States will send such,
and so many persons to reside in said nation as they may judge proper, not exceeding four
in number, who shall qualify themselves to act as interpreters. These persons shall have
lands assigned by the Cherokees for cultivation for themselves and their successors in
office; but they shall be precluded exercising any kind of traffic.
All animosities for past grievances shall henceforth cease, and the contracting parties
will carry the foregoing treaty into full execution with all good faith and sincerity.
This treaty shall take effect and be obligatory on the contracting parties, as soon as
the same shall have been ratified by the President of the United States, with the advice
and consent of the Senate of the United States. In witness of all and every thing herein
determined between the United States of America and the whole Cherokee nation, the parties
have hereunto set their hands and seals, at the treaty ground on the bank of the Holston,
near the mouth of the French Broad, within the United States, this second day of July,
in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one.
William Blount, governor in and over the territory of the United States of America south
of the river Ohio, and superintendent of Indian Affairs for the southern district, [L. S.]
Chuleoah, or the Boots, his x mark, [L. S.]
Squollecuttah, or Hanging Maw, his x mark, [L. S.]
Occunna, or the Badger, his x mark, [L. S.]
Enoleh, or Black Fox, his x mark, [L. S.]
Nontuaka, or the Northward, his x mark, [L. S.]
Tekakiska, his x mark, [L. S.]
Chutloh, or King Fisher, his x mark, [L. S.]
Tuckaseh, or Terrapin, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kateh, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kunnochatutloh, or the Crane, his x mark, [L. S.]
Cauquillehanah, or the Thigh, his x mark, [L. S.]
Chesquotteleneh, or Yellow Bird, his x mark, [L. S.]
Chickasawtehe, or Chickasaw Killer, his x mark, [L. S.]
Tuskegatehe, Tuskega Killer, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kulsatehe, his x mark, [L. S.]
Tinkshalene, his X mark, [L. S.]
Sawutteh, or Slave Catcher, his x mark, [L. S.]
Aukuah, his x mark, [L. S.]
Oosenaleh, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kenotetah, or Rising Fawn, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kanetetoka, or Standing Turkey, his x mark, [L. S.]
Yonewatleh, or Bear at Home, his x mark, [L. S.]
Long Will, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kunoskeskie, or John Watts, his x mark, [L. S.]
Nenetooyah, or Bloody Fellow, his x mark, [L. S.]
Chuquilatague, or Double Head, his x mark, [L. S.]
Koolaquah, or Big Acorn, his x mark, [L. S.]
Toowayelloh, or Bold Hunter, his x mark, [L. S.]
Jahleoonoyehka, or Middle Striker, his x mark,[L .S.]
Kinnesah, or Cabin, his x mark, [L. S.]
Tullotehe or Two Killer, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kaalouske, or Stopt Still, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kulsatche, his x mark, [L. S.]
Auquotague, the Little Turkeys Son, his x mark,[L. S.]
Talohteske, or Upsetter, his x mark, [L. S.]
Cheakoneske, or Otter Lifter, his x mark, [L. S.]
Keshukaune, or She Reigns, his x mark, [L. S.]
Toonaunailoh, his x mark, [L. S.]
Teesteke, or Common Disturber, his x mark,[L. S.]
Robin McLemore, [L. S.]
Skyuka, [L. S.]
John Thompson, Interpreter.
James Cery, Interpreter.
Done in presence of--
Danl Smith, Secretary Territory United States south of the river Ohio.
Thomas Kennedy, of Kentucky.
Jas. Robertson, of Mero District.
Claiborne Watkins, of Virginia.
Jno. McWhitney, of Georgia.
Fauche, of Georgia.
Titus Ogden, North Carolina.
Jno. Chisolm, Washington District.
Feb. 17, 1792. | 7 Stat., 42. | Proclamation, Feb. 17, 1792
Additional Article To the Treaty made between the United States and the Cherokees on the
second day of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one.
It is hereby mutually agreed between Henry Knox, Secretary of War, duly authorized thereto
in behalf of the United States, on the one part, and the undersigned chiefs and warriors,
in behalf of them-
selves and the Cherokee nation, on the other part, that the following article shall be added
to and considered as part of the treaty made between the United States and the said Cherokee
nation on the second day of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one; to wit:
The sum to be paid annually by the United States to the Cherokee nation of Indians, in
consideration of the relinquishment of land, as stated in the treaty made with them on the
second day of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, shall be one thousand five hundred
dollars instead of one thousand dollars, mentioned in the said treaty. In testimony whereof,
the said Henry Knox, Secretary of War, and the said chiefs and warriors of the Cherokee
nation, have hereunto set their hands and seals, in the city of Philadelphia, this
seventeenth day of February, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and
H. Knox, Secretary of War, [L. S.]
Iskagua, or Clear Sky, his x mark (formerly Nenetooyah, or Bloody Fellow), [L. S.]
Nontuaka, or the Northward, his x mark, [L. S.]
Chutloh, or King Fisher, his x mark, [L. S.]
Katigoslah, or the Prince, his x mark, [L. S.]
Teesteke, or Common Disturber, his x mark, [L. S.]
Suaka, or George Miller, his x mark, [L. S.]
In presence of---
Jno. Stagg, jr.
Leonard D. Shaw
James Cery, sworn intrepreter to the Cherokee Nation.
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