Organized August 5, 1861; Confederate service August 19 to 21, 1861; reorganized April 18, 1862; merged into 1st Consolidated Tennessee Infantry Regiment April 9, 1865; paroled at Greensboro, North Carolina May 1, 1865.
The companies changed letters at the reorganization. Those used after the reorganization are shown below, with prior letters indicated.
All of these companies were mustered at Camp Sneed, Knoxville, during August 1861, except Company "K". The regiment was mustered into Confederate service at Camp Sneed with ten companies, two of which were transferred out of the regiment, and one company added. A regimental roster dated March, 1865, signed by Lieutenant Colonel O. A. Bradshaw, commanding the regiment, gave the following information: "First organized by Colonel William M. Churchwell at Knoxville, Tennessee, August 19, 1861. Reorganized April 1862. First known as the Fourth Confederate (Tennessee) Regiment, but there being another Tennessee regiment registered at the War Department by that number, we were changed to the 34th Tennessee Regiment. All records belonging to the regiment having been lost at different times, there may be some mistakes in dates, but the roster is as correct as could be made without the records of the regiment. It is impossible to forward orders as to promotions and appointments, they having been lost as stated above."
The regiment officially designated as the 4th Tennessee Infantry by the Adjutant and Inspector General's Office was that formed by Colonel R. P. Neely, in West Tennessee. On November 16, 1861, the Adjutant and Inspector Generals Office directed that this regiment should be known as the 34th Tennessee Infantry, but the order never attained general recognition, and in most field reports the regiment was called the 4th Tennessee Infantry, Provisional Army. It was also sometimes reported as the 4th Confederate Infantry, but this was the official designation of the regiment first called the 1st Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Infantry Regiment.
Since the individual companies came from such widely separated areas of Tennessee, it is evident the companies were originally organized sometime prior to the muster at Camp Sneed in August, 1861. Field officers elected were William Churchwell, colonel; James A. McMurry, lieutenant colonel; Robert N. Lewis, major. At the reorganization in 1862, Lieutenant Colonel McMurry became colonel; Major Lewis became lieutenant colonel; and Oliver
A. Bradshaw was elected major. McMurry died of wounds October 2, 1862; Lewis became colonel, Bradshaw lieutenant colonel, and Captain Joseph Bostick major.
On September 15, 1861, the regiment was reported as part of Brigadier General Felix K. Zollicoffer's command at Knoxville, with 654 present for duty, 777 present, and 850 present and absent. On September 24, Zollicoffer reported the regiment still at Knoxville with 790 men, totally unarmed. November 2, 1861, Zollicoffer reported he had left Rains (11th Tennessee) and Churchwell, with a battalion from the 16th Alabama at Cumberland Gap under command of Colonel Rains. On November 26, with Churchwell in command, the same troops were still at Cumberland Gap, at which time the 34th reported 603 present for duty, 731 present, 836 present and absent.
On January 21, 1862, still at Cumberland Gap, Colonel James E. Rains' Brigade was composed of the 11th and 34th Infantry Regiments, 3rd Tennessee Cavalry Battalion and Burrough's Battery. The 34th reported 521 present for duty, 756 present and absent. The regiment remained in the vicinity of Cumberland Gap until June 17, 1862. On May 31, in the order of battle for Major General E. Kirby Smith's command, the regiment was reported in Brigadier General C. L. Stevenson's Division, composed of the 30th Alabama, 3rd Georgia Battalion, 29th North Carolina, 11th, 32nd, 34th, 36th Tennessee Infantry Regiments, and three batteries.
On June 17, according to company reports, the regiment moved to Bean's Station on Clinch Mountain, skirmished at Jones' Station and Walden's Ridge, and was stationed during July and August at Woodson's Station, about 40 miles from Morristown, and from there moved back to Cumberland Gap September 18, 1862, marched to Frankfort, Kentucky, and retreated back to Cumberland Gap, and from there was ordered to Lenoir Station, where it was stationed October 30, 1862, a march of something over 500 miles. During this time it was in Stevenson's Division, Rains' Brigade, on July 3, 1862, composed of the 11th and 34th Tennessee, 29th North Carolina, 42nd Georgia Infantry Regiments, 3rd Georgia Infantry Battalion, and Yeiser's Georgia Battery.
It moved from Lenoir Station November 16, 1862, by rail to Normandy, from there to Readyville, where it was transferred into Brigadier General George Maney's Brigade at LaVergne, Tennessee. This brigade was in Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk's Corps, Major General Benjamin F. Cheatham's Division, and was composed of the lst/27th, 6th/9th, 34th Tennessee Infantry Regiments, Maney's 24th Sharpshooter Battalion, and Smith's Mississippi Battery. As part of this brigade it was engaged in the Battle of Murfreesboro December 31, 1862, and the 34th reported 54 casualties out of 371 engaged. In reports of the battle the regiment was variously referred to as the 4th Tennessee (Provisional Army), 4th Tennessee Volunteers, and 4th Confederate Regiment.
The regiment was stationed at Shelbyville and Tullahoma until July 1, 1863 when it moved to Chattanooga. From Chattanooga, it fell back to LaFayette, Georgia, and then back to the Chickamauga battle September 19-20, 1863. In this fight, the 34th entered the engagement with 163 men, and had 65 casualties. Colonel McMurry was mortally wounded, Lieutenant Colonel Lewis and Major Bradshaw wounded, and Captain Bostick took command in the later stages of the battle. On September 22, in the seizure of Missionary Ridge, the regiment lost another 10 men. From Missionary Ridge, the regiment moved to Sweetwater, about October 1.
On November 12, 1863 the brigade was transferred to the Division of Major General W. H. T. Walker, and at this time was composed of lst/27th, 6th/9th, 34th, 41st, 50th Regiments and the 24th Sharpshooter Battalion. On December 14, 1863, the 34th re-ported 112 effectives, 165 present, 273 present and absent, with 105 arms.
From January through April, 1864 the regiment was stationed at Dalton, Georgia, with the exception of a move to Demopolis, Alabama, and return February 19 to 29th. This was an expedition which was started to re-enforce General Leonidas Polk in Mississippi, but which was recalled before reaching its destination. On February 20, 1864 the Brigade was returned to Hardee's Corps, Cheatham's Division, with Lieutenant Colonel Bradshaw in command of the 34th. As part of Maney's Brigade it participated in the Atlanta Campaign, the return to Tennessee under General Hood, and the move to North Carolina to join General Joseph E. Johnston in the spring of 1865, although no details of its activities in these campaigns were found.
On April 30, Lieutenant Colonel Bradshaw was reported in command of a field consolidation of the 34th Regiment and 24th Tennessee Infantry Battalion By June 30, the 19th Tennessee had been added to the brigade, and the 41st transferred to Strahl's Brigade. On September 30, the brigade was reported as composed of lst/27th, 6th/9th, 19th, 34th/ 46th and Soth Tennessee Infantry Regiments. Lieutenant Colonel Bradshaw was in command of the 34th/46th.
On December 10, 1864, just after the Battle of Franklin, Colonel Hume R. Feild was reported in command of a brigade composed of the 6th/9th/34th/SOth Tennessee commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George W. Pease and the lst/27th, 8th/l6th/28th Tennessee Infantry Regiments. The 34th was not shown in the order of battle for General Joseph E. Johnston's Army at Smithfield, North Carolina, March 31, 1865, but in the final reorganization of Johnston's Army April 9, 1865, the 34th was part of the 1st Consolidated Tennessee Infantry Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver A. Bradshaw of the 34th, consisting of the 1st/6th/8th/9th/16th/27th/ 28th/34th Regiments and 24th Battalion. This regiment was part of the brigade commanded by Brigadier General Joseph E. Palmer, which, with the rest of Johnston's Army was surrendered and paroled at Greensboro, North Carolina May 1, 1865.
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This unit history was extracted from Tennesseans in the Civil War, Vol 1. Copyrighted © 1964 by the “Civil War Centennial Commission of Tennessee” and is published here with their permission.
This history may not be republished for any reason without the written permission of the copyright owner.
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