Goodspeed's History of Tennessee

The Goodspeed Publishing Co., Nashville TN, 1886-1887

Shelby Co. TN

History of Shelby County

(page 838)

But little, if anything, was done for public education in Shelby County before 1870. During this year, in accordance with the code of Tennessee, and an act of the Legislature, passed July 7, 1870, the scholastic population of the county was enumerated in part, but as the school records are incomplete a full history of the schools is unattainable. So far as those records show, the school population was as follows: In the First Civil District, white 424, colored 296; in the Sixth District, white 415, colored 422; in the Seventh, white 293, colored 508; in the Ninth, white 432, colored 420; in the Thirteenth, white 126, colored 388; in the Seventeenth, white 53, colored 49. This enumeration included the youth between six and twenty-one years of age. In 1871 the enumeration was continued and based upon the ages from six Ito eighteen. In the Third District, white 165, colored 235; Tenth, white 401, colored 340; Twelfth, white 159, colored 246. In the Ninth District 513 attended school and in the Tenth 351, 268 white children and 83 colored. In 1872 the following additional districts made reports: the Second, white 207, colored 251; Fifth, white 236, colored 82 ; Eighth, white 204, colored 218 ; Sixteenth, white 128, colored 270. In 1873 the Fifteenth District reported white children 305, colored 125.

During the succeeding years the work of organizing the schools went slowly forward, and even of what was done reports are meager. Turning backward and going over the same ground, January 14, 1871, the school commissioners made a report to the effect that they had found some difficulty in carrying out the provisions of the law on account of the general apathy of parents and guardians with regard to the schools and the want of suitable buildings for schoolhouses. They had, however, succeeded in organizing one school which would commence operations January 16, 1871, and another was in process of organization. In the Fourteenth District, school commissioners were elected February 20, 1871, and in the Eleventh and Twelfth on the 25th of March. On the 1st of the following July the school commissioners of the Seventeenth District reported that they had received from the county trustee $554.20, and that the second school had been organized, that school had been in session five months, that seventy-three scholars had been in attendance and that the amount paid out for school purposes had been $501 and for furniture, $21.70. On October 12, 1871, the total amount of funds in the Fourth District was reported to be $480.17; and that Mrs. Hamilton had received $152.85 and Mrs. Amelia Templeton, $100.

(page 839)

In the Second District the commissioners reported for the year ending June 30, 1872, having received from the, county trustee $566.25, and having paid out for instruction $432, for house rent $6, for two loads of wood 75 cents and for a water bucket 50 cents, and in the Sixteenth District for the same year the commissioners reported that school had been taught four months for the white children, with an average attendance of forty-three, for which $314.16 had been paid, but that there had been no free school for the colored children for want of a house in which to hold it.

These facts and figures are given merely as illustrative of the work attempted during the early years of the school's existence. The superintendents paid praiseworthy attention to the duties of their office, and the people generally, not having seen the advantages free public schools confer upon a community, could not appreciate those advantages. Previous to 1882 some of the county superintendents were a Mr. Tyler, George Fleece, Judge G. P. Foote, C. H. Stein and Dr. W. L. Henderson. In 1882 Mrs. W. H. Horton was elected by the county court and since then the schools have made steady and commendable progress. During the first year of her incumbency she held three teachers' institutes ; during 1883, four; during 1884, five; during 1885, five, and during 1886, five. The West Tennessee Institute was held in Collierville in June, 1886, by the State superintendent of common schools. There were in attendance about eighty-five teachers, fifty of them from Shelby County. There were present four instructors of the teachers, Prof. Frank Smith, Prof. A. B. Bourland and Mrs. Horton.

The progress the schools of the county have made is shown by the following statistics from the report of Mrs. Horton for 'the year ending-June 30, 1886. At the beginning of the year there was on hand $12,769.60; there was received from the State during the year $7,660.91; from the county, $55,381.77; total school fund for the year, $75,812.29. The scholastic population was, white males, 7,591; white females, 6,781;. total white children, 14,378; colored males, 9,813; colored females, 9,777;. total colored children, 19,590; a grand total of 33,968. The number of schools in the county was for white children 69, for colored children 79, total number of schools, 148 ; the number of schoolhouses was 148, one stone and 147 frame; 7 frame schoolhouses were erected during the year. The number of white male teachers employed during the year was 17 ; white females, 58 ; colored males, 59, and colored females, 20 ; a total number of 154 teachers, There are 19 school districts in the county and 12 graded. schools. The number of pupils enrolled during the year was 10,556, of which the white males numbered 1,829; white females, 1,778; colored males, 3,270; colored females, 3,679. The average daily attendance was, white children, 4,166; colored, 6,338; total, 10,504. The average number of days taught during the year was 120, and the average compensation was $35 per month. The schoolhouses are valued at $37,517.50, and the apparatus at $1,640; total value of school property $39,157.50. At the election held January 3, 1887, Dr. W. L. Henderson was chosen to succeed Mrs. Horton.

(page 840)

Great interest attaches to the public schools of Memphis. Generally they have been ably managed, and they have attained a high degree of efficiency. But it would be very difficult without great effort in the way of investigation to accurately apportion to those responsible for their establishment the credit due to each. It is believed, however, that J. W. A. Pettit was the first to urge upon the Board of Aldermen of Memphis to establish a system of free schools for the city. This was early in 1848, and in accordance with his advice the members of the board had schools opened each in his respective ward. Col. Pettit, as alderman, opened the first school at the northeast corner of Third and Overton Streets, in the house of Mrs. Moore, whom he employed as teacher. Subsequently he opened a second school, the teacher of which was Mr. Walker, near the corner of Main and Overton Streets. Subsequently it was moved to the Methodist Church, east of Center Alley and south of Concord Street. Later schools were opened in the Second and the Third Wards. On the 1st of April, 1848, a resolution was adopted by the Board of Aldermen that an assistant teacher be employed by the alderman of the First Ward for the school in that ward, " provided the compensation of such assistant shall not on any account exceed one-half allowed the teacher ($30 per month) now employed, and that said assist-ant shall at any time be discontinued by the board with no compensation except for the time he or she may have been employed as such assistant." On the 13th of May, 1848, a committee was appointed to examine into the progress of the Third Ward school, and on the 20th J. Wright and Col. Pettit offered separate reports in relation to the adoption of a system of free schools. A resolution was offered on June 3 to reinstate Thomas J. Pearson as teacher of the Third Ward school, to which an amendment was offered to discontinue the whole of the ward schools, both amendment and. original resolution being voted down, showing that there was some dissatisfaction with the working of the free school system. But it had too many friends to permit of its overthrow, and on the 19th of June, 1848, an ordinance was introduced and passed concerning the free school system. This ordinance consisted of selections from two ordinances previously proposed but not passed, one of them having been introduced by Mayor G. B. Locke, the other by Mr. McGeveney.

(page 841)

From Mr. McGeveney's proposed bill were selected Sections 1, 2, 8 and 9, and from Mayor Locke's, Sections 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Section 1 of the ordinance as adopted divided the city into school districts; Section 2 provided that the school tax should be one-eighth of the city revenue as provided by the charter, and that the schools were to be equally free to all white children between the ages of six and sixteen; Section 3 said that all that part of the city north of Poplar Street should be the First District, and all that part of the city south of Poplar Street should be the Second District; Section 4, that the Board of Education, then called the Board of Managers, should consist of the mayor, two aldermen and two citizens, one from each school district; Section 5, that there should be two school houses in each district, and Section 7 required the Board of Managers to report to the Board of Mayor and Aldermen. On the 1st of July the Board of Managers was increased by two members, and a superintendent of schools provided for. Col. J. W. A. Pettit was elected to this position, and was the first superintendent of schools of Memphis. On the 18th of this month the duties of the superintendent were prescribed, and the responsibility for the success of the schools was laid upon his shoulders. Supt. Pettit opened schools on Market, Poplar, Adams, Court, Madison, Gayoso, Main, Hernando and Third Streets) and Brown Avenue. Among the early teachers besides those mentioned above were Misses Cochran, Cook, Root, Pettit, Gayle, Creighton, Porter and Davis, Mesdames Margaret Doyle, Creighton, Sappington, Erwin, Barnett and Jenkins, and Messrs. Davis, Creighton, Kilpatrick, B. R. Trezevant, Carroll, Bell and Ring. The progress of the schools under the Board of Managers, constituted as already recited, not being satisfactory a change was proposed by Mr. Barry in the following ordinance:

" Be it ordained by the mayor and Board of Aldermen of the city of Memphis that hereafter the Board of Mayor and Aldermen be the sole board for conducting and controlling the public schools of the city, and that the present Board of Managers be discontinued," which was passed on the same day. The old Board of Managers had found it necessary to act irregularly and had not reported the irregular action to the Board of Mayor and Aldermen at their first meeting after such irregular action had been taken. Dr. Fowlkes on the 21st of October proposed an ordinance, which was passed, providing for the establishment of a high school as nearly as practicable in the geographical center of the city in the Third Ward.

(page 842)

The Board of Mayor and Aldermen passed a resolution on the 1st of August, 1850, in which they approved of having a general superintendent for the schools, and fixed his salary at $600 per year. At the same time they appointed J. W. A. Pettit superintendent, " subject to removal at any time." Up to this time Col. Pettit had served without pay. According to his annual report for the school year ending June, 1851, the number of schools had increased to twelve, with 580 pupils, the cost for the year being $4,891.50. Had Col. Pettit's advice with reference to the purchase of lots for schoolhouses been followed, thousands of dollars would have been saved to Memphis in the expense of her schools. He remained superintendent of the schools until June, 1852, when he removed to Germantown, where he died August 24, 1863. Col. Pettit has been called the " father of the Memphis public schools."

The next superintendent after Col. Pettit was Dr. Ebbert, for the year ending June, 1853; then J. F. Pearle, for the year ending June, 1854, and for the year ending June, 1855, Mr. Tarbox, and S. H. Tobey after Mr. Tarbox went to Nashville. Mr. Tobey was succeeded by Dr. A. P. Merrill, who served two years, until June, 1857. During his first year, on May 4, 1856, the city schools were incorporated by an act of the Legislature. Previous to this incorporation some of the principal teachers otherwise than as named were the following: Miss Black, now Mrs. Boyd, of Memphis; Miss Mary E. Woods, now Mrs. C. A. Richard-son, of Memphis; Miss Wood, now Mrs. George W. Fisher, of Memphis; Miss Emily Bowdoin, now Mrs. E. B. Armour, of Memphis; Miss Fannie Gayle, now Mrs. Jobe, of Memphis; Miss Florida Pettit, now Mrs. Dr. Thompson, of Germantown, and Mrs. Henrietta Hampton, who commenced teaching in October, 1852, has been so engaged ever since, and is still a valuable teacher in the schools.

By the act of incorporation referred to above, the Board of Mayor and Aldermen was required to appoint a suitable person from each ward of the city and one for the city at large as visitors of the city schools. This board of visitors was given power to choose one of their own number president, to employ and dismiss superintendents, teachers, etc., to fix salaries, rent school-rooms, buy furniture, and to have full control of the schools. No one was to be admitted as a pupil except white persons residing within the city limits, and between the ages of six and twenty, except upon payment of tuition, and the board was authorized to pre-scribe higher branches of study than those usually taught in the city schools, charging therefor a suitable tuition fee if the ordinary school revenue was not ample to pay the extra expense attending the introduction of these higher branches. The first board of visitors under this act was composed of Dr. L. Shanks, Dr. J. W. Maddox, J. B. Kirtland, Leroy Pope, H. L. Guion and Robertson Topp for the wards, and Dr. A. P. Merrill at large. A new act of incorporation was passed March 20, 1858.

(page 843)

During the war the schools were conducted without much interruption, but it was very difficult for the city to pay expenses, these expenses being from necessity paid in scrip. On the 5th of July, 1864, the following resolution was passed by the Board of Mayor and Aldermen : " That the warrants issued by the School Board shall be received and cashed as all other city warrants;" and in this way the schools were maintained. In the scholastic year of 1861-62 there were seventeen schools, with 1,495 pupils; in that of 1864-65 there were twenty-seven schools, with 2,419 scholars. In 1865 the superintendent said in his re-port that without suitable buildings, with an empty treasury, and with all the excitement and feeling aroused by civil war, the schools had been successfully conducted through the storm. The tuition of each pupil in daily attendance upon the schools had been $4.30, and the total cost of conducting the schools for that year had been $45,473.88.

The following table comprises more information with reference to the schools of the city than can otherwise be presented in the same space, and corrected as it is by the preceding sketch it will prove especially valuable:

YEARS: Scholastic Population Enrollment Average Number Belonging: Average Daily Attendance: Expenses: No. of Months in Session: Total Cost per Pupil Attending: Presidents: Superintendents:
1850-51  ......  ......  ......  ......  * ......  ......  * ...... ......  ...... 
1851-52 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
1852-53   584             Dr. Ebbert
1853-54   1,298           A. P. Merrill J. F. Pearle
1854-55 2,000 1,599 1,906 ..... 17,152      A. P. Merrill  Tarbox & Tobey
 1855-56   1,578  998  867  16,239    18 73     A. P. Merrill
 1856-57                J. H. McMahon  A. P. Merrill
1857-58 ...... 1,555 912 736 21,586 .... 29 32 G. R. Grant Leroy Pope
1858-59 .... 1,501 824 691 20,469 10 29 62 T. W. Preston Leroy Pope
1859-60 3,568 1,682 964 798 23,896 10 29 94 John A. Nooe Leroy Pope
1860-61   2,073 1,187 1,019 29,977 10 29 41 John A. Nooe Leroy Pope
1861-62   1,791 863 755 20,038 10 26 54 G. R. Grant A. P. Merrill
1862-63   1,495 774 607 20,078 10 33 07 James Elden Richard Hines
1863-64   2,216 1,129 902 23,707 10 26 28 S. T. Morgan Richard Hines
1864-65   2,418 1,259 1,036 54,330 10 52 44 S. T. Morgan Richard Hines.
1865-66 3,865 2,523 1,361 1,209 61,212 10 42 35 J. J. Peres W. Z. Mitchell
1866-67 4,505 2,597 1,417 1,276 87,011 10 68 19 H..H. Higbee W. Z. Mitchell
1867-68 5,555 2,884 1,740 1,573 52,867   33 60 H. P. Connel W. Z. Mitchell
1868-69 9,427 2,362 1,585 1,383 43,329 5 31 32 J. T. Leath W. Z. Mitchell
1869-70 10,667 3,307 2,500 1,659 54,026 10 32 56 Thos. R. Smith J. T. Leath
1870-71 9,909 5,005 2,891 2,599 64,858 9 21 10 R. B. Maury J. T. Leath
1871-72 9,909 5.1811 2,783 2,656 72,194 10 28 24 W. Z. Mitchell H. C. Slaughter
1872-73 13,393 5,230 2,583 2,522 74,935 10 29 71 Chas Kortrecht H. C. Slaughter.
1873-74 10,381 5,823 2,988 2,749 71,538 8 1/2 26 02 Chas Kortrecht A Pickett.
1874-75 10,400     2,927 70,261 9 24 00 Chas. Kortrecht A. Pickett
1875-76 10,419 5,506 2,660 2,392 47,181 9 19 72 R. W. Mitchell A. Pickett
1876-77 9,001 5,687 3,097 2,457 49,478 9 20 13 W. A. Goodman J. T. Leath.
1877-78 9,011 5,174 3,131 2,822 58,951 8 20 88 W. A. Goodman J. T. Leath
1878-79 9,141 4,105 2,611 2,389 31,434 6 13 15 W.C. Folkes W. H. Foute
1879-80 9,141 4,134 2,565 2,365 38,942 6 16 46 W.C. Folkes W. H. Foute
1880-81 9,745 4,367 2,887 2,578 41,559 8 16 12 G. V. Itambaut Chas. H. Collier
1881-82 11,242 3,948 2,930 2,671 44,265 8 16 57 G. V. Rambaut Chas. H. Collier
1882-83 11,200 4,323 2,991 2,814 45,023 8 16 00 G. V. Rambaut Chas. H. Collier
1883-84 13,169 4,226 2,981 2,729 47,390 8 17 36 G. V. Rambaut Chas. H. Collier
1884-85 13,169 5,143 3,333 3,016 47,643 8 15 80 R. D. Jordan Chas. H. Collier
1885-86 13,808 4,910 3,903 3,591 56,845 8 15 83 R. D. Jordan Chas. H. Collier

(page 844)

Referring briefly to the colored schools it may be stated that among the first efforts made with reference to their establishment was in September, 1864, when a special order was issued that the control and discipline of the educational interests, school and teachers of the public schools for the colored people of the city of Memphis,

" is hereby entrusted to the municipal government of the city, and the committee on public schools is hereby constituted a school board with full power for the efficient management of the same." Subsequently the colored schools were incorporated with the white schools, and in 1869 J. T. Leath, president of the board of education, said he had heard no complaint because of this joint incorporation. President Leath then expressed himself in the following language: Imbued and clothed as our colored friends are with all the immunities of citizens, they should be qualified by education and moral training to perform all their duties to society, to their country and to their Maker."

Commendable progress has been made in the public schools for colored children. In March, 1874, the Clay Street schoolhouse was completed. At this time there were 3,902 colored children of school age ill the city, 1,565 of whom were enrolled. At the close of the school year 1878-79 there were seven schools for white children and three for colored. In 1882 there were five schools for colored children, as was also the case in 1885. The subjoined table is of great interest as comparing the work of the two classes of schools for the year 1885.


SCHOOLS Number different
Pupils enrolled.
Number of Days Present Number of Days Absent Number of Days Tardy Per cent of Attendance Average Enrollment Average Number Belonging Average Number Attending No. Remaining at close of session
  Boys Girls Total.                
Smith School
-Senior dep't
24 116 140 15,892 1185 381 93 109 105 100 96
-Intermediate and prim. dep'ts 205 279 484 50,676 3626 1318 93.3 355 335 315 329
Leath 247 290 537 63,314 6409 1738 90 427 415 380 406
Peabody 237 255 492 48,863 5143 1809 90.5 356 326 294 325
Merrill 187 207 394 41,250 3033 711 9303 288 274 256 254
Jefferson 156 161 317 30,808 2,504 918 92.5 210 197 181 177
Pope 143 145 288 30,404 2620 541 92.5 208 200 185 197
Total white 1,199 1,453 2,652 281,207 24,526 7,416 92 1,903 1,801 1,713 1,788
Kortrecht 406 553 959 100,578 6,805 1434 93 648 637 597 574
Monroe 252 314 566 48,191 5403 826 90 348 331 298 310
Winchester 200 239 439 36,225 1,037 532 97 240 256 221 267
Saffarans 148 175 323 527 1,592 262 39.4 168 146 136 143
Seventh Street 93 111 204 15,780 1770 491 99 112 112 100 99
Total Colored 1,099 1,392 2,491 223,302 18,607 3,545 92.3 1,516 11,482 1,305 1,393
GRAND TOTAL 2,298 2,845 5,143 504,509 43,133 10,961 92.3 3,469 3,333 3,016 3,181

(page 845)

The Higbee School is located at the intersection of Beale, Lauderdale and Jessamine Streets and fronts on each street. It was established in 1875 as the Presbyterian Grammar and High School, with Miss Jennie M. Higbee, principal. Miss Higbee had been for ten years principal of the Memphis Female High School, and it was thought by her friends that her sphere of usefulness would be enlarged by placing her at the head of this school. In 1879 the name was changed to "Miss Higbee's High School," and in 1882 to The Higbee School." The building in which this school is kept is a three-story brick with seventeen rooms devoted to study and recitation. The grounds are beautifully shaded with oaks, elms and magnolias. In addition to the above described a new building has just been completed. It is an imposing structure and so arranged as to meet all requirements. It is the result of a conference of Miss Higbee's friends, who recognizing the great good she had accomplished in a long series of years by her unaided efforts, furnished the means for its erection and equipment. Besides the common branches of an English education, the course of study comprises the higher English branches, natural sciences, literature, ancient and modern languages, music, phonography, painting and wood carving. The object of the principal of this school is expressed in her motto, "Not many things, but much." Following are the names of the faculty of this school: Miss Jennie M. Higbee, principal; Miss Laura Shortt, higher mathematics, Latin and Greek; Miss Helen Marion Quinche, natural sciences; Mrs. P. E. Phillips, history, mathematics and languages; Mrs. W. R. Johnson, intermediate classes; Mrs. Mary Shouse, principal of primary department; Mlle. Marie Jost, French; Prof. Bignon, French ; Prof. Leon Lausberg, German; Miss Martha Tradeau, principal of school of music; Miss Jonnie Winston Fall, phonography and type writing; Miss Carrie Deslonde Dobyns, principal of art school, and Miss Aurelia Lane, resident governess. This school has had over 2,000 students and 193 graduates.

The Clara Conway Institute was founded in September, 1877, " for the purpose of affording Southern girls the opportunity of acquiring a broad and liberal education, such as would fit them for independent living for honor and usefulness." The school is located at 259 Poplar Street. Since its establishment it has had in attendance 1,843 pupils. There are in the school four courses of study: English, literature, classical and special., The classical course requires eleven years for its completion; the English course, which includes the classical except the last year, requires ten, and the literary course requires ten years. The special course is optional. As showing the limit of study in the classical course the eleventh year's branches are given as follows: Trigonometry, Horace, Herodotus, the history of philosophy, political economy, English literature, the history of art, civil government and a course of historical reading. One object of education is expression which, as defined by Miss Conway in her tenth annual catalogue, is as follows : Every thought and feeling writes itself upon the plastic body of the little child, and the face and body at sixty are but the history of the soul, that has either beautified it or disfigured it. It is thus in every woman's power to be beautiful in old age." The school was chartered in May, 1885. The following are the officers of its board of twenty-one trustees.: John K. Speed, president; T. J. Latham, vice-president; John H. Shepherd, secretary, and T. H. Milburn, treasurer.

(page 846)

The Le Moyne Institute was established in 1871 through the American Missionary Association, a Congregational benevolent organization deriving its funds from individual contributions and from the Congregational Churches of the North. For some years previous to the establishment of this institution the American Missionary Association had sustained a number of common schools for colored youth in Memphis. In 1870 Dr. F. Julius Le Moyne of Washington, Penn., a life-long, earnest and active friend of the colored people, gave $20,000 to be used by the association in founding an English school for colored youth in Memphis. After the cost of erecting the necessary buildings had been taken out of this fund, there remained about $11,000 as an endowment fund and the school was opened in September, 1871. Since this time the institution has been fostered by the association, the money necessary to its maintenance, over and above that received as tuition from the pupils, being furnished by it.

The school is divided into primary, intermediate, grammar and normal grades. The two latter departments provided thorough instruction in the branches taught in the public schools of the State. Approved methods of teaching and the proper management of classes and schools are likewise thoroughly taught. One very important feature of the work in this school is its department of manual training. It consists of an experimental kitchen and sewing rooms, in which are taught household duties. In the wood-working department the boys are duly taught the use of various kinds of tools, including the turning lathe, etc. Three years are spent in the primary grade, two in the intermediate, three in the grammar grade, two in the elementary normal course, at the completion of which students are presented certificates, and two in the advanced normal grade, at the end of which they are given diplomas. Thus twelve years are spent in this institution. The enrollment for the year 1886-87 is as follows: First primary grade, 72; second primary, 69; intermediate grade, 85; grammar grade, 68; normal department, 151, a total enrollment, 445; names counted twice, 18; net enrollment, 427. The instructors in this school are as follows: Andrew J. Steele, principal and professor of natural science; Rev. Benjamin A. Imes, pastor and instructor in Christian work; Esther A. Barnes, grammar and English literature; Rebecca M. Green, mathematics and drawing; Ruth E. Stinson, geography and history; Sarah C. Bateham, grammar grade; Celestia S. Goldsmith, intermediate grade; Zulu E. Fellon, second primary grade; Fannie A. McCullough, first primary grade; Margaret A. C. Stewart, vocal and instrumental music; Minerva A. Kinney, girls' industrial work and matron of teachers' home; C. M. Stevens, boys' industrial work, and Ella A. Hamilton, missionary and night school teacher.

(page 847)

In 1864 efforts were made to secure the establishment by the Christian Brothers of the Christian Brothers' College in Memphis, and September 21, 1865, a lot was purchased on Wellington Street between Linden and Vance Streets, by Rev. Thomas L. Power, O. P., the pastor of St. Peter's Church; but owing to pressing demands in other portions of the United States, it was not until after 1871, when the great Chicago fire destroyed several of their institutions that a few brothers could be spared to found this college in Memphis. Most Rev. Patrick A. Feehan, bishop of Nashville, aided by his clergy and parishioners, raised the first subscription toward paying for the college property and the institution was formally opened November 19, 1871, since which time its patronage has been very liberal and its success exceedingly gratifying. Extensive additions and improvements were completed in 1886 at a cost of more than $20,000.

The object of this institution is to afford the means of acquiring a liberal and refined education, and the curriculum embraces a preparatory, commercial, collegiate, literary and scientific course. Of the scientific and literary courses, the Greek and Latin classics and English literature constitute an essential part. The junior members are required. to devote special attention to mathematics, logic, literature and the philosophy of history, and the senior members to political and moral philosophy and the doctrine of ontology.

By its revised charter this institution is authorized to confer the degrees of A. B. and A. M. and such other degrees as are usually conferred by similar institutions in the United States. Following are the names of the executive officers of the institution: Brother Maureham, president; Brother Abban, vice-president; Brother John of the Cross, secretary, and Brother Nicholas, treasurer.

(page 848 - part)

St. Agnes Female Seminary was established in 1851 by Father T. L. Grace, and incorporated in 1852. It was immediately taken in charge by six sisters of the order of St Dominic from St. Catharines, Ky. The names of these sisters were Veronica Ray, who was the first Mother Superior; Magdalen, Frances, Vincent, Catharine and Vincentia, the latter of whom is the only one now living. The property, which is on the south side of Vance Street, near Orleans Street, was purchased by Father Grace,. and at the time was known as the "Coe place." In addition to the building then standing the sisters have erected others as required. At first there were but very few students, but the number steadily increased and it is remarkable that there was no diminution in attendance during the war, and no cessation of instruction on account thereof. There were then about 100 students in attendance, which is the present number, although there are accommodations for 175. In May, 1878, the buildings were destroyed by fire as also was an excellent and choice library valued at $6,000. New buildings were erected in 1879 and the library has been to some extent replaced, having now about 1,500 volumes. Pupils are in attendance from all the adjoining States, varying in age from six to nineteen. They are taught by eleven teachers and ten others are engaged in household duties about the institution. The Mother Superiors have been as follows: Mother Veronica Ray, eleven years; Mother Ann, three years; Mother Mary Joseph, three years; Mother Mary Bernard" two years; Mother Mary Louisa; seven years; Mother Mary Alphonso, one year (died of yellow fever) ; Mother Mary Thomas, four years; Mother Mary Josephine, three years, and again Mother Mary Thomas, commencing in 1885.