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Military Records Page
Tennessee and the Civil War

An Eyewitness History
of the
16th Regiment, Tennessee Volunteers
May 1861 – May 1865

© Jamie Gillum, 2005

The following is an accumulation of information to be used in the compilation of a book on the Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers. There is much more to be told, in the mean time, enjoy what you can of an incredible story told almost solely by the soldiers in their attempt to survive disease and combat in America’s bloodiest war.
There are MANY names from Warren County and its environs but they are not indexed. Scroll slowly and learn of day to day life in the American Civil War for common Tennesseans. There is MUCH more to come!


*Sources are listed by number. Example:

(Source #, Quote, page #)

Chronological Sources

N- Narrative.

(1)- Tennesseans in the Civil War- A Military History of Confederate and Union Units with Available Rosters of Personnel, Pt. I, Civil War Centennial Commision, Nashville, Tn, 1964.

(2)- The Civil War Diary of Capt. J. J. Womack, Womack Printing Co., McMinnville, Tn., 1961.

(3)- Resinor Etter Diary

(4)- My Grandfather's Diary of the Civil War/Carrol H. Clark, Co. I Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, C.S.A., Reprinted by C.W. Clark Jr. from a series of articles written in 1911. Copy on hand at McMinnville Public Library.

(5)- Hear the Wax Fry, James R. Thompson, Edited by Nellie Boyd, 1966. Copy on hand at McMinnville Public Library.

(6)- Confederate Veteran:

1-"Incidents in the Battle of Perryville, KY.", Davis Biggs, Vol. 33, p.1412.

2-"Second Hand Pictures for Silly Southerners", "A faithful veteran" of Donelson's Brigade, Vol. 1, p. 377.

3-Insert on Wounded at Perryville, T. A. Head, Vol. 5, p. 435.

4-"Some Memories and Facts", Rev. M. B. De Witt, Vol. 7, p. 299.

5-"Concerning the Battle of Nashville", W. H. Kearny, Vol. 13, p. 68.

6-"Vivid Experiences in Prison", A. J. Cantrell, Vol. 16, p. 216.

7-"James Polk Smartt", Tribute by N. B. Forrest Camp, U. C. V., Vol. 22, p. 517.

8-"The Retreat from Tennessee", James H. M'Neilly, Vol. 36, p. 306.

9-"Capt. W. P. Tolley, of Winchester, Tenn., writes:", Vol. IX, p.356.

10-Lawson Smith, PHOTO, Vol. XI, p. 565.

11-"Secession in Putnam County, Tenn." By J. M. Morgan, Gainsboro., Vol. XVII, p. 170.

12-"A Faithful Watch and its History", George W. Parks, Irving College, Tenn., Vol. XVII, p. 604.

13-"The Cantrells of Tennessee", Will T. Hale, Nashville, Tenn., Vol. XXII, p. 476.

(7)- Military Annals of Tennessee,

(8)-"Sixteenth Tennessee Infantry. by H. H. Dillard, Cookeville, Tenn.", Military Annals of Tennessee, Vol. 1, p. 335-47.

(9)- Carter House Archives, Columbia Pike, Franklin, Tenn.

(10)- Campaigns and Battle of the Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, Thomas A. Head, Cumberland Presbyterian Publishing House, Nashville, TN, 1885.

(11)- Diary of Major George W. Winchester, Quartermaster, Donelson’s Brigade, p. 73-80, Winchester Papers, Confederate Collection, Manuscript Division, TSLA, Acct. # 1117, MF 793, p.1-9.

(12)- Confederate Military History Extended Edition, Vol. X, Tennessee, Confederate Publishing Company, Edited by Gen.Clement A. Evans, 1899; p.52.

(13)-"The Battle of Perryville", Col. Luke W. Finley, Southern Historical Society Papers, Vol. XXX, Jan.-Dec., 1902, p.248.

(14)-Army of Tennessee, Cheatham’s (1st) Corps Returns from Dec. 13th, 1864, Henry Hampton, A.A.A.G., Cheatham’s Division Staff. Carter House Archives.

(15)-The War of the Rebellion: A compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies., Lieut. Col. Robert N. Scott and Lieut. Col. Henry M. Lazelle, Series I-Vol. XX, Pt. I Reports, Government Printing Office, Washington D. C., 1887.

1-General Leonidas Polk

2-General Benjamin F. Cheatham

3-BGen. D. S. Donelson

4-Col. J. H. Savage

(16)-The Life of John H. Savage, John H. Savage, Printed for the author, Nashville, TN, 1903.

(17)-Oliver P. Tucker’s Notebook, Coffee County Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. VIII, No. 1, 1977.

(18)-"Three Year, Seven Months and Twenty-seven Days in the C. S. A. in the War Between the States. How a Boy Of Seventeen Went to War, What He Saw and Some of His Experiences. Written Expressly for The Independent by R. C. Carden, Manchester, Tennessee." The Independent (A Newspaper in Boone, Iowa). Newspaper clippings dated April 5, 1912 through August 16, 1912.

(19)-Daily News Journal, Saturday, February 1, 1992, Murfreesboro, Tennessee.

(20)-Sgt. Arnold Moss Mason Diary/ Co. E, 16th Tennessee, Manuscripts Division, Box 7, Folder 4, TSLA.

(21)-Letter to Union and American Newspaper, Written from Camp Sewell Mountain, V. W. V. A., October 2, 1861, anonymous, Manuscripts Division, Box 11, Folder 45, TSLA.

(22)-Forgotten Confederates; An Anthology about Black Southerners. Compiled and Edited by Charles Kelly Barrow, J. H. Segars & R. B. Rosenburg, Journal of Confederate History Series; Vol. XIV; Southern Heritage Press, Atlanta, Ga.; 1995.


6/11- "At a public meeting of the citizens of Putnam, County, Tenn., held in Cookeville April 22, 1861, Hon. E. L. Gardenhire was unanimously chosen chairman and William J. Reagan and B. B. Washburn secretaries of the meeting. Enthusiastic speeches were made by Hon. John H. Savage, Hon. S. S. Stanton, Hon. E. L. Gardenhire, Col. S. H. Combs, Col. T. B. Murray, Judge James T. Quarles, W. H. Botts, and others to a large and eagerly listening audience. The subject discussed was about the crisis in our government and the course to be assumed by the slave states.

The chairman appointed H. H. Dillard, Col. John P. Murray, Benton Marchbanks, W. Q. Hughes, Holland Denton, Tim H. Williams, and J. C. Apple a committee on resolutions. It was perhaps the largest meeting ever held in Putnam County, and there was great enthusiasm. Only three persons in the assembly voted against the resolutions. The preamble stated:

‘The antislavery party is the enemy of the Union and the Constitution, advocating the equality of the negro and the white races and the abolition of slavery. To accomplish this the antislavery party has been organized and now constitutes the dominant party in all the free States. And now, having possession of the Federal government in all its departments, it is attempting by conquest and coercion to carry out its damnable heresies entertained for many years toward the South and its institutions. The North has turned a listless ear to all supplication of the South in behalf of their cherished constitutional rights and treated with contempt every proposition for the honorable pacification of our difficulties. A civil war, with its untold horrors and consequences, is now commenced by the sending of an armed fleet by the Federal government to enforce its will upon the Southern Confederacy. Counsel and reason having been in vain exhausted in an honorable effort to secure our rights under the Constitution, we are now driven to the deplorable necessity of the sword and that God who rules the battles; therefore

"Resolved: 1. That we indorse every effort that has been made by convention and otherwise to bring about a peaceable settlement of our existing difficulties, and thereby preserve the Union intact; but having failed and all reasonable hopes of pacification being extinct, we do now deem it the wisest policy in Tennessee to unite her future destiny with the Southern Confederacy.

"2. That we regard the war now waged upon the Southern Confederacy by the administration as unnational, unwise, and unholy, without authority under the Constitution; that we look upon this act of the President of the United States in calling out troops and making war without the sanction of Congress as an unjustifiable assumption of power.

"3. That the position assumed by our Representatives in the State Legislature to use all means to speedily get Tennessee from under the tyrannical rule of Abraham Lincoln meets our unqualified approbation, and they are hereby directed to use all means in their power to dissolve the connection of this State with the general government and unite her fortunes with the Confederate States, and that we will ratify their action when submitted to us for approval.

"4. That the duplicity of Lincoln has our contempt; we detest his tyranny and defy his power.

"5. That we will resist his usurpation unto death; that we have no compromise with tyranny or with the tyrant who has trampled our Constitution and now seeks to enslave us.

"6. That we are opposed to Andrew Johnson for any place or position, and think him unworthy the position he now occupies, and we hereby request our Senators in Washington to no longer attempt to represent us in the Lincoln Congress."

The Foregoing is a copy of the preamble and resolutions read at Cookeville April 22, 1861, copied then by me.

4-May 15, 1861-The Van Buren boys met at Wiley Miller's on the 15th of May. It was prearranged, the wives, daughters and sisters came along to bid the boys farewell. By 2 p.m., they were on the march to McMinnville, "to the music of Alf and Joe Stipes fiddles and Lewis Ford's drum", and arrived there late in the evening where they were well received and fed.(#1)

4-May 16-The men moved down to the R.R. next to the river in preparation for the trip to camp. Clark recalled, "Many, in fact, most of us, had never seen a Steam Car and some of the boys looked under the car box for the engine."(#1)

2- May 16, 1861- The "Warren Guards" left McMinnville for Allisonia under the command of Capt. T. B. Murray. "We went into quarters and began the regular routien of the soldiers life drilling and otherwise disciplining for the army." (1)

5-That same day, James R. Thompson, who had formed with a company of men in Dekalb County under the command of L.N. Savage, rendezvoused at Smithville and commenced a movement to McMinnville in two horse wagons.(1)

2-Several other companies had already established themselves at this camp. (Camp Harris) "...each and every Captain was commander-in-chief of his own forces." (1)

4-A nearby factory had recently burned down. The boys, being without cooking utensils, used pieces of smoke stack for cooking. Gabe Elkins took up the fiddle and played his favorite song, "Pewter" for the boys to dance.(#1)

2-"Notwithstanding we have enlisted for the defense of Tennessee for twelve months, yet it is believed by very few that our services will be wanted in the field half that period. The idea is prevalent that the seceded states will be an independant government, and her soldiers returned home before the expiration of six months". (1)

4-May 20-General Anderson mustered the men into service. The men had to form into line to be inspected for physical fitness. "the maimed and stiff jointed put forth their very best appearance, for fear of being rejected, but Oh! my, 'twas not long until some began to make excuse."(#1)

10-The Sixteenth regiment was comprised of men from several middle Tennessee counties. "Warren county furnished four companies; White county one company; White and DeKalb, one company; DeKalb, one company; Coffee and Grundy, one company; Van Buren, one company; Putnam, one company."(17)

2-May 20, 1861- warm & rainy- spent the evening drilling. (1)

2-May 21-Tue-drizzly and cool-wrote article for "New Era", a newspaper in McMinnville. Womack announces candidacy for Major of the "Mountain Regiment". (1)

18-May 21-"On the 21st day of May, 1861, I enlisted in company B, 16th Tennessee Infantry, under Col. Jno. H. Savage, and was sent to Estil Springs, on the N. C. & St. L. railroad…"(Apr. 5)

2- May 23-Thur.-clear & warm- a member of the company is charged with theft of a blanket and found guilty.(2)

2- May 24-clear and warm-"broken skillets and battered pans" (2)

4-Cooking Rice in Messes.(#1)

2-May 25-Sat.-clear and warm- Murray's, Savage's Coffee's and Shield's companies are ordered to Camp Trousdale. (2)

2-May 26-Sun.- clear & warm- took train to Nashville and following a short delay, on to Camp Trousdale.(2)

4-The men partook in much horseplay on the trip to Nashville, Frank Thompson had found a mask, which he used to frighten the men on the trip until Sam Porter poked him through the eyehole. Although the event was found to be funny by Frank up to this point, Sam sat down with a bloody nose. After reaching there, they crossed the Cumberland on a wire foot bridge. That evening, they boarded trains and took off for Camp Trousdale. (#2)

2-May 27-Mon-cloudy and warm- Drew and pitched tents at Richland Station. (2)

2-May 27-30- the men mingled amongst the regt.s and went to local public speaking at Paine's School House about 4 miles west until the evening of the 30th, when all troops on the post assembled to listen to General Orders. " could not be called dress parade." (2)

5-While at Trousdale, the men camped with the 7th, 8th, 17th, 18th and 20th Tennessee Regiments. "They were all Tennessee Volunteers and our time was devoted to drilling." (2)

2-May 31-Fri.- warm & cloudy- commenced regular drilling. (2)

8-Dillard recalled that, "My company-- in fact, nearly the whole regiment-- was composed of what you might term mountain-men. They were healthy and strong; most of them comfortably situated at home; nearly all young men; some with more and some with less education-- not one in the company I believe, who did not write his own signature to the muster rolls. They were courageous and prompt to duty in camp and upon the field, and not one ever acted the coward in battle".(342)

2-June 1-Saturday- cloudy and warm- Poor sanitary conditions and close living begin to take their toll on the farm boys. " Many of the command sick with measels, which contagion is spreading very fast".(3)

2- June 8-Sat.-clear and hot-Womack guarded two men for being arrested for a drinking spree the night before, heavy rain late in the evening.(3)

2- Womack saw the disregard of the Holy Sabbath as inexplicable.(4)

8-"The company I led out, known as "The Highlanders," was from Putnam county; organized in May and mustered into service at Camp Trousdale, 9th of June, 1861. ... H. H. Dillard, Captain; W. K. Sadler, First Lieutenant; H. Denton, Second Lieutenant; and R. A. Young, Third Lieutenant".(335)

2-June 10-Mon.-clear & hot-10 companies from the 6th Congressional District are combined to form a regiment. Elections are held in which J. H. Savage is appointed Colonel and T. B. Murray Lt. Col.. Womack announces his candidacy for the Captain vacancy left by Murray's promotion. (4)

5-Joseph H. Goodbar-Major

George Marchbanks-Adjutant

John T. Reed-Surgeon

Gilbert R. Campbell-Quartermaster

James Glasscock-Commissary

J. W. Poindexter-Chaplin(2)

2-June 11- Tue. -clear & hot- "Savage's Regiment" is moved from Richland Station to Camp Trousdale. The evening was spent at "hard labor clearing and arranging our campground". The ground was covered with Red Oak and black jack, "about three miles from the Station, N.E.". (4)

2- June12- clear & hot- Womack runs against John R. Paine for the Captaincy of Co. E, and wins, but not without upsetting Paine.(4)

2-June13-lear and hot- "About eleven o'clock at night the alarm was given of the approach of the enemy, which was done at the instance of the commanders of the camp to test the courage of the soldiers, and resulted very satisfactorily to them. Companies and regiments were aroused and thrown into line with an alacrity that would scarcely have been expected of troops who had long been inured to the field. And notwithstanding we were entirely unarmed, had an enemy charged our camp he could not have escaped without having been severely flogged- for poles, clubs, rocks, shovels, spades, tongs and various other implements of war filled the brawney hands of the dauntless boys."(5)

2- June 15- Sat.-clear & hot-Womack requisitioned the Quartermaster General at Nashville for "98 red and an equal number of gray flannel shirts: 98 pair of gray pants: 98 pair of drawers: 98 gray caps: and 10 pair of shoes".(5)

2- June 16- Sun. clear & hot- had their first dress parade in the evening. (5)

2- June 17- clear with cool winds- "Gabriel McCraw of my company, died this morning about eight o'clock, the first death that has occured in the Mountain Regiment".(5)

2-June18-July 15- men are furloughed for trips home. (6)

2- June 30- Sunday- Rev. J. W. Poindexter gave a sermon to the men and was elected Chaplain of the 16th.(7)

2- July 1- warm & cloudy- Womack received and issued to his company "80 pair of pants and 86 red flannel shirts". (7)

2-July 2- Drew 96 canteens for the company.(7)

2-July 4- clear & hot- the "ladies of the Mountain District" presented the 16th with a "most beautiful flag" represented by Capt. A. L. Davis to Colonel Savage.(7)

2-July 5- Drew 26 pr. of shoes for the company.(7)

2-July 10-Wed.-clear & hot-first regimental drill(8)

4-The men began to mingle with the other units and became aquainted with their comrades. Clark recalled, "I remember the big fat Negro who had a cake & cider stand. Millions of flies swarmed around & on the cakes."(#2)

2-July 11-A deserter was mustered out of service that evening with his" head bare and half shaved, barefooted and pants rolled above the knees," a board painted with red letters "deserter" was hung across his chest and shoulders. (8)

2-July 15-purchased material for a tailored uniform amounting to $61.50.(8)

20-A. M. Mason, who had left home on the 10th to join Capt. Womack’s company already at Trousdale, wrote, "July 19 Nothing new this morning co. drill went to the artist shop and had my degerotype taken"(1)

2-July 20-hot and showery- Regiment received orders to be prepared to move at an hour's warning. "We marched up the Louisville R. R. about three miles with guns, knapsacks, haversacks and canteens..." the object of which was to practice the men.(9)

2-July 22- incessant rain until 3 p.m.-Regt. left camp Trousdale at daylight and marched to Richland Station, taking train through Nashville at 4 p.m., then continued by rail to Tullahoma by 9 p.m., and on towards Chattanooga. "A splendid dinner had been prepared for us in Nashville, which we enjoyed very much. While there many of the men became beastly drunk, some of whom had to be left in the city and many others were remarkably troublesome".(9)

(21)-"… I cannot omit mentioning the kind reception of our regiment by the citizens of Nashville. Most of the regiment had been exposed all day to a drenching rain in open top cars and as we marched through the streets en route to East Tennessee and Virginia train we could but lament our unpleasant condition so early in our travels with our fresh feathers and swords, knapsack and rations all wet and our bodies thoroughly chilled. We were halted in the streets and addressed by General Quarles and Judge Turner in a few appropriate and soul-stirring remarks connected with our mission, who were replied to by Col. Savage and Lieutenant Col. Murry, giving strong assurances that from the invincible 16th they should hear a good account. We were then marched to the female academy where we found refreshments furnished by the citizens such as suited aptly a wet and hungry soldier."(1)

4-Clark lost his new kepi while peeking out of the train crossing the Tennessee.(#3)

2-July 23-Tue.-Arrived in Chattanooga around 9 a.m., staying until 11 p.m., when train was taken for Knoxville. "Before leaving Chattanooga seven rounds of amunition were issued to the regiment, the first we had ever recieved".(9)

2-July 24- Wed. very warm- Arrived at Knoxville at 2 p.m. A prostitute is found in camp.(9)

2-July 25-Left Knoxville at 7 a.m. and arrived at hainesville at about 9 p.m..(10)

2-July 26-warm & showery-Moved camp 1/4 mile, and practiced with their muskets in the afternoon.(10)

2-July 27-struck tents at 5 a.m., and moved to the R.R., loading trains for Bristol, arriving there at 5 p.m. where they stayed all night. (10)

5-While at Bristol, Thompson saw a wagon of bacon sides roll up with grease dripping out of the bottom, and commented that if they were going to feed the soldiers that way, "we would starve." In his memoirs he adds, "But many, many times after that, I would have been glad to hold my bread under the drip of that wagon bed."(2)

2-July 28-Left Bristol at 10 a.m. on trains and traveled all day and night. Arrived at Lynchburg around noon and marched south 3 miles, pitching tents beyond the fairground in a grove of oaks. (10)

4-On the march through the city, citizens threw plugs of "fine tobacco" to the troops from the upper stories of buildings.(#3)

2- Aug 1-Adopted the Confederate States Constitution.(10)

2-Aug 2-Struck tents at 5 a.m., marched back to the tracks and took the cars for Staunton.(10)

2-Aug 3-Sat.-Very hot-Regiment moved to Millborough by rail.(11)

2-Aug 4-Regiment cleared off a place to camp near the depot.(11)

20-"U.L. Wood our O.S. was discharged practised shooting our musquets"(2)

5-Thompson, along with several other men in the regiment, became ill during the short stay here. When well enough to travel, he was moved to Bath Alum Springs to recover. Thompson would not rejoin the regiment until after the Cheat Mountain events on October 25th.(3)

2-Aug 5-Regiment marched three miles in direction of Huntersville, and camped.(11)

20-"held an election for noncommissioned officers, elected Jesse Walling, O.S. W. T. Mabery 2 segt. W. N. Lowery 3 segt."(2)

4-Camped on Cowlick Creek near an old school or church.(#3)

2-Aug 6-Tue- Very hot-Regiment marched twelve miles and camped at Warm Springs.(11)

2-Aug 7-Hot & Showery-Regt. marched 13 miles through the mountains to Back River, camped at Col. Gaitwood's, "the men this evening are very much fatigued".(12)

2-Aug 8-Warm & Showery-Marched to Huntersville, stopping to camp a mile west of town on "..a low, wet, and spongy tract of land, very unfit for a permanent encampment". Womack noticed the march from Millborough had been made in good time (35 miles),".. but not without the loss of much of our camp equipage and clothing, such as tents, cooking utensils, knapsacks etc.".(12)

12-General Loring issued general order No., 10 which formed his division into six brigades. His Third Brigade, commanded by Col. D. S. Donelson, was composed of the 8th and 16th Tenn., 1st and 14th Ga., and the Greenbrier, Va. Cavalry. This brigade along with the 2nd, 4th and 6th brigade comprised the Huntersville Division under the direct command of Loring himself. The 1st and 5th brigades were placed under the command of Gen. H. R. Jackson to be known as the Monterey division.(157)

4-Marched 11 miles to Huntersville.(#3)

2-Aug 8-22- The regiment readied their arms and participated in company and regimental drill in increasingly worse conditions. The weather was noticeably cooler, and Womack found heavy coats and fires to be very comfortable. The health of the regiment continued to decline.(12-13)

8-"Two large thoroughfares came in at this place, called the Green Bank and Green Brier Roads, along which the enemy might come to the rear of our advance forces then at Valley Mountain, under Gen. Loring, and our brigade, together with the Forty-eight Virginia and a Georgia regiment were left to guard these two roads. Here sickness in camps from typhoid and bilious fevers and other diseases was quite fatal, killing some of our best and stoutest men".(335)

16-"Huntersville is a kind of crack or hole in the mountain, which rises high above the town. The town is on the slope of a mountain. There are small strips of level land at the bottom between the mountains, from fifty to one hundred yards wide, with slow-moving, bad-looking water. It was one of these narrow bottoms that General Donelson ordered the regiment to camp, with this sluggish branch for water. Not a breath of air stirred in this hole and the sun came down with heat not surpassed at New Orleans of Vera Cruz. In a short time, two or three days, one hundred men were sick and unfit for duty-ninety-six of them from diarrhea, and four from fever. … He [Savage] requested General Donelson to permit the regiment to camp on the side of the mountain above Huntersville where the winds blew and the air was cool and there was a spring of water almost as cold as ice and big enough to turn a mill. Donelson refused. Savage drew a petition to General Loring for permission to change his camp, which, by military law, must pass through the hands of Donelson. Dr. Read, brigade Surgeon, was present when the petition came to Donelson’s hands, who disapproved it, speaking sneeringly of it. Being so informed by Dr. Read, Savage determined to disobey Donelson and take the consequences. He believed it was a higher duty to save the lives of men under his command than he owed to Donelson’s order. He took a detail to clean off a place in a swag in the mountain side above Huntersville, sufficient for a camp. The swag in the mountain selected by Savage for his camp was covered by small oak brush apparently cut down to prepare for cultivation. The men were piling the brush, when a man came and asked Savage what he was doing that for. Savage told him that bad water and bad air had caused one hundred of his men to get sick in forty-eight hours and that he would move the regiment up there where the air and water were pleasant and healthy. The man replied, "This is my property and I will protect it. You cannot camp here or get water from my spring." Savage replied, "The lives of those men, near a thousand, are in my keeping, and it is my duty to guard them against death by disease as much as by death in battle, and I shall move the regiment and camp here, and get water out of your spring, unless you show me a spring near to the camp." The man replied, "I will than make an Ellsworth-Jackson case of it;" meaning the assassination of Jackson by Ellsworth in Alexandria at the beginning of the war. Savage replied: "Nobody but a fool or a coward would talk that way in sight of my regiment of near a thousand men. If you were to hurt me these men would hang or shoot you to death instantly. Nobody fears you; if it was not my duty to command and take care of these men I would agree to meet you on some lone mountain or desert far away from men and would expect to see you run like a turkey." He replied, "I will kill the first man that comes to my spring after water." Savage replied, "I will get the first bucket full; you can leave here now and don’t show yourself again." He left Huntersville. This man was named Skein, and was a lawyer. The soldiers reported that Mrs. Skein would not allow them to get water out of the spring. Savage took a guard and said to the lady: "To protect you from rude or lawless conduct on the part of my soldiers I put a guard over your lot with strict instructions to let no soldier visit your lot except for water, and to get water and return. If you are molested in any way let me know and I will protect you from all trouble."(91-3)

2- Aug 23-Friday-Cloudy and cool-Regt. moved to a new campground about 1/2 mile south of Huntersville on a "very lofty hill".(13)

16-"Breakfast was early; all wagons were packed and started to the new camp. As they ascended the mountain Savage rode to Donelson’s tent, saluted him and said, "General, your orders will hereafter reach me where you see those wagons." Savage requested the quartermaster to furnish plank to build ten shanties. He replied, saying, "We do not furnish it." Savage replied, "Have the plank at my camp immediately and present your bill and I will pay it." The plank came but no bill was presented. Ten shanties were put up, the sick put in them, a guard over them under orders of the doctor, with instructions to give no medicine to the diarrhea men, but to confine them to the shanties, with the allowance of one cracker and one cup of coffee three times a day, and to drink very little water."(93)

21-"We had a dozen or more small framed hospital buildings constructed and comfortably fixed for the sick and a marked improvement of the health of the regiment was brought about by his timely attention and industry. This was indeed a most beautiful encampment on a long green slope looking down on Huntersville and the surrounding valley and surrounded in the background by a dark grove of half-grown pines and the more distant peaks of the Alleghany Mountains rearing their dark heads high in the heavens as avowed masters of the storm for a thousand years. At a distance it presented indeed a most tasty picture for the pencil of the artist."(3)

2-Aug 24-31- Regt. drilled and failed to recommend any Commissary or Surgeons. On the 31st the 16th is mustered into Confederate States Service by Maj. Canley of Tennessee.(14)

16-"A few days after Savage removed his regiment to the mountain General Donelson rode up to his tent and said: ‘Col. Savage, I like your encampment. If you will clean off a place for me I will come up and camp with you.’ A camp was prepared for the general under some beautiful tree, and he left the little muddy stream down there and occupied the camp cleaned off for him."(94)

16-Aug 25-Savage’s disobedience had paid off. "In forty-eight hours all men with bowel complaint reported for duty."(93)

2-Sept 1- Cannons are heard in the direction of Cheat Mount.(14)

2-Sept 3-O.D. Neal of Womack's Co. died at 1 p.m., and was buried on the 4th atop a high hill south from the Huntersville Church (300paces) with military honors. Womack enters, on the 4th: "In consequence of either the neglect or inability of the C. S. government to supply our brigade with clothing, Capt.s of companies are ordered to ascertain the wants and needs of their respective commands, and report a list of the same, to be sent by a detailed officer to our homes in Tennessee to solicit supplies from them, which order I have this day complied with".(14)

16-Sept 6-"When the order came to proceed to Valley Mountain the Sixteenth had seven hundred healthy men for duty."(94)

2-Sept 6- Fri.-cloudy & warm- Struck tents at 6 a.m. and marched towards "Big Springs" for a distance of only 10 miles due to the conditions of the roads. They halted and camped at an old encampment called Edry.(14-15)

2- Sept 7-Still at Edry, conducted Battalion Drill under BGen. Donelson late in the evening.(15)

2-Sept 8-Sunday-heavy showers- Marched 12 miles over bad roads, wagons fell behind and men spent the evening "without covering from the weather or rations for the hungry. This doubtless is the beginning only of many privations and hardships yet to be endured before leaving this rugged mountain".(15)

2-Sept 9- clear and warm-Marched to Big Spring and on to the top of Valley Mountain on an "awful road", arriving there after nightfall.(15)

21-"Owing to the constant heavy rains and great amount of wagoning the road was rendered almost impassable. Our train would never have passed over it but for the heavy details of men to assist them through the mud and to improve the road ahead of the train."(4)

16-"At Valley Mountain the regiment was ordered to take three days’ rations and march against the enemy."(94)

21-"Although much fatigued and worn out with heavy marching through the mud and rain and many were already resting their sore muscles in sleep yet, the prospect at an early fight aroused our boys to new energy and that night a party in charge of Lieutenant Blaine was dispatched by Col. Savage two or three miles to slaughter beavers and another party sent a mile and a half for flour, who dispatched their business in a quick time and by 12 o’clock at night our men were engaged in cooking and by daylight the old 16th stood in Battalion on the hill with knap and haversacks well packed and ready for the march."(4)

2-Sept 10-Tue. -cloudy & warm- "We marched out down the mountain this morning at sunrise, in rear of the 8th Tenn. Regt., with which we caught up at Big Spring, and which now forms the right wing of Donelson's brigade, and the 16th regiment (ours) the left wing, the two composing the first Tennessee brigade.(15)

2-"Our brigade, composed of about eighteen hundred men, marched about ten miles, much of the time through the woods, over the mountains, and across ravines..."(15)

4-"A little creek ran down the valley which we had to cross, very often, sometimes wade & sometimes a foot log. The road was a pathway & we went in Indian file, which made our line of march one mile long. Our guns were flintlock muskets and carried cartridges made of one large ball and three buckshot."(#4)

8-"No road and no place to make one on much of the route, and the miners and sappers had to cut out a sort of way through hills, ravines, creeks and rocks to get our light artillery through which frequently required the teams to be disengaged and the gun-wagons to be drawn by the men".(336)

2-"It was the duty of our fall in rear of the enemy encamped at Tygart's Valley, six or eight miles south of Huttonville."(15)

16-" It moved all day up a hollow and passed the night, without fire, at a house and hay field called Winnants’."(94)

2-"We marched till after dark and fell noiselessly upon our arms for the night, on a farm, whose owner's name was Winnan".(15)

8-Sept 11-"On the morning of the 11th our right brigade and Gen. Anderson's separated, the later taking off to the right along the side of the mountain range, to fall in on the pike in rear of the pass, while our brigade was to take the fortification at Coonrad's in the rear. Proceeding down Conley's Run a few miles, we crossed over a rough mountain to Stewart's Run. As we had now arrived in the neighborhood of the enemy, Col. Savage was ordered to take two companies and proceed in advance down the creek."(336)

8-"He had not proceeded far down the creek with the two companies before they came suddenly upon four of the enemy's advance pickets in a cabin and took them prisoners by surprise. About one mile further down they came upon five others, who, in attempting to escape, were fired on and two killed."(336)

4-"We heard musket shots in front of us, which caused us to double quick and all excited."(#4)

8-"Col. Savage and our guide, Dr. Butcher, hurried on their horses after the three others, and coming in distance, fired and killed one and took the other two prisoners and sent them back by Butcher to the two companies, who were coming up in haste."(336)

4-"In crossing a little slick footlog, my feet slipped, down I went astride the log. My knapsack & gun unbalanced me & down I went head first into the water, completely immersing me, but I held to my gun."(#4)

8-"Learning from these three prisoners that the reserve company of pickets were encamped at an old house in the valley not far below, Col. Savage put off in haste upon his horse, and had gone but a short distance when he discovered the company at the old house, which seemed to be in a bustle and confusion. Putting spurs to "old George," he went dashing at full speed and alone down the valley, brandishing a huge pistol in the air; right on he rushed up to and through their confused ranks, throwing his pistol from side to side, commanding them to down with their arms, which many of them did, and stood gazing in stupid consternation; while others had rushed into the house and were pointing their guns out through the open windows as if to fire upon the incarnate dare-devil; and seeing this, Savage dashed right up to the very muzzle of their guns and ordered them to throw down their arms and surrender "or the last rascal of you will be killed in five minutes". Down went their guns with a roar upon the floor. By this time the advance-guard were coming up nearly at double-quick, and the entire company, "Cincinnati Grays," were taken prisoners virtually by one man, who had so suddenly rushed headlong upon them that these strong, brave men stood confounded, and for the moment could but regard him as an incomprehensible son of thunder."(336)

4-"..but on I ran & in a short distance passed a little cabin on the right of the path and just beyond it on the left lay two wounded yankees..."(#4)

2-"We captured however about 40 of the number and then proceeded".(16)

16-Savage’s personal bravery was unquestionable. He had single-handedly captured 48 members of the 16th Ohio with their arms and accouterments.(97)

21-"The officers delivered up their swords, one of which, a very nice one, Col. Savage now wears."(6)

8-"Although admiring such bravery, yet I thought it reckless in our Colonel, and he permitted me to chide him for it, saying he prevented their escape to bear the news of our approach, but that he could not afford to risk as much the second time with the hope of escaping death."(336)

16-"A detail his the captured guns on the side of the mountain, and a guard took charge of the prisoners. The brigade left the creek [Stewart’s Run], and took a horse road up the mountain, descending from the top to Becky’s Run on a road leading down from Cheat Mountain."(97)

8-"Placing our prisoners between two regiments, we went over another creek, down it, and then were led up a steep mountain along a blind path after dark, and as we descended the mountain on the other side the enemy's camp-fires of a sudden gleamed up in the valley below us far and wide. We almost butted up against their fortifications before we were aware. About facing, we moved by the left till the right rested on top of the peak, and the left far down the mountain-side of our approach; and here in Egyptian darkness and heavy rain we lay by guess on our arms all night."(336-7)

2-"Just as night closed in we marched in single file noiselessly up the mountain to within sight of the enemy fires. Here we closed up, fell upon our arms by the roadside and slept under a drenching rain all night".(16)

16-"Donelson called for a council of war, and showed his order for the first time. He suggested that there were one thousand men miles farther on that might be captured. Savage replied, that "one thousand three hundred might capture one thousand, but if reports are true was are now in the rear of about five thousand men, at Crouch’s, and separated from General Loring, and would have trouble in bringing in one thousand men if captured." At this point a bit of confusion set in. Donelson had apparently advanced the brigade a few miles further than he should have. This placed the men within a mile of the Federal encampment. Savage reportedly took charge of the brigade and placed the Eight Tennessee on a ridgeline and reversed the Sixteenth’s line of march to guard the head of a hollow. Savage felt their position to be very exposed and called for a withdrawal at daylight the next morning. Rain was falling in torrents, and it would prove to be a miserable night for the men on the mountain top.(97)

21-"We then gave back, left in front, until the right wing was on top of the mountain, the left extending half way down the mountain on the side of our first approach and here we lay on our arms by guess, in the deep darkness and heavy rain all night. About ten o’clock I heard considerable noise and confusion in our line apparently on top of the mountain, and the excitement rushed along down the line with undertones of: ‘Up, up, something on hand’ - and I sprung up too, and gave the passing countersign all remained in silence and readiness for a few minutes, when instead of an enemies’ approach, it was nothing but a big old bear that had unawares stumbled over some of our sleeping boys with his lubbardly feet causing quite a sensation."(7)

2-Sept 12-Thur-cloudy but more pleasant-"At four o'clock this morning all were aroused, arms inspected, and every thing put in readiness for battle before the break of day..."(16)

16-"As signs of day appeared next morning Savage passed the sentinels and followed the top of the mountain some half mile to where it terminated in a precipice some hundreds of feet above the valley of Tygert’s River. From this he had a good view of the Yankee camp at Crouch’s, and was of the opinion that there might be from three to five thousand men there. Returning, a sentinel told him General Lee was in camp and an inquiry had been made for him. He reported what he had seen of the Yankee camp to General Lee, who inquired of the conduct of the men should a battle occur. Savage replied: "The men are all right. Guns are wet; as soon as this rattle of ramrods ceases they are ready for battle."(99)

2-"Just as the scattering rays of the morning sun began to make their appearance over the eastern hills, to the great surprise of the whole command, Gen. Lee and staff rode to the head of the brigade and gave orders for our retreat".(16)

21-"This was the first time I had seen him. He is a fine looking man near six feet high - a little heavy and well proportioned - eyes blue and steady - without whiskers - nothing fantastic in dress - but neat and comfortable and has somewhat the appearance of a Frenchman - He strikes you at once as a general."(7)

8-"About daylight Gen. Lee passed up the line. It was the first time any of us had ever seen him, and we were much impressed with his fine appearance, which at once inspired us with confidence. He and his staff had lain that night at some hay-stacks in the narrow valley about a half mile down in our rear. Not long after sunup the information came through our pickets that the enemy had appeared in this little valley below...".(337)

8-"As a badge of distinction by which to tell our own forces from the enemy in emergencies, we were all required to wear a piece of white cloth tacked in front of our hats. This precaution served us a good purpose the morning Gen. Lee and staff came riding up the mountain so early from where he had camped at the hay-stacks. As they approached in the gray twilight some of our guard were sure they were enemies and wanted orders to fire on them, but I waited and was soon relieved by seeing their badges".(338)

21-"After waiting impatiently to hear the opening of our cannon by Gen. Loring, until 8 o’clock, and seeing it would not be done, we were ordered to move back from our position - the left now being in front."(8)

16-"General Lee directed Savage to move his regiment, and take possession and guard the road until the brigade passed. The Sixteenth Regiment had two companies in the rear guard, with two vedettes."(99)

2-"About sunrise we moved down the mountain in single file, left now in front. We had scarcely begun to move however, before our rear guard, (now become van.) met a company of about one hundred men, detached from the mountain to come to the camp in the valley...".(17)

21-"The intelligence had come, however, from one of our pickets stationed at base of the mountain near a field that a body of the enemy were collecting in the field. Captain Dillard and Captain Johnson and Captain York were ordered to proceed under Col. Savage ahead of the Brigade as the advance guard and which they immediately did and had not gone far before the firing of our pickets at the foot of the mountain informed us of the presence of an enemy and the advance guard went double quick to the foot of the mountain in about three-fourths of a mile and just before reaching the field there was a brisk fire opened upon Captain Dillard’s company which was a little distance in advance of Captain York’s, which was returned immediately by them with much spirit."(8)

8-"... Col. Savage was immediately ordered to take two companies and reconnoiter. Capt. York's and my company were selected, and down the mountain we went at quick-time, as our pickets now fired on their advance-guard, coming on our trail up the hill, killing two."(337)

16-"The firing was rapid."(99)

4-"About this time we heard the firing about 100 yards below us and we were satisfied that our vedettes had fired on the enemy. Our company and Capt. Dillard's were ordered to attack them, and on our way passed 2 wounded Yanks."(#5)

16-"The Yankees were driven down the mountain and down in the main road."(99)

8-"As we got down to a fence at a field, we were fired on by the enemy about three hundred strong, some two hundred yards off, sheltered by the banks and skirting timber of a little creek that ran through the field. We soon formed line in the field, and the work commenced in good earnest. The enemy having the decided advantage in position, we were soon ordered to charge, and so we did with a wild yell…"(337)

21-"… the firing was kept up for some minutes when Col. Savage, seeing the enemy had the advantage in position, ordered Captain Dillard and Lieut. Johnson to charge them, which they did promptly with that wild shout and a rush that characterizes true Tennesseans throughout the fighting world."(8)

4-"Col. Savage ordered us to take them out on our bayonets. We raised the Yell & the enemy left."(#5)

8-"… but before we reached the creek they fled to the woods a little distance away, and after a short stand disappeared in the thick forest".(337)

21-"… they broke in confusion for tall timber, which luckily for them, was not far behind them and then they got behind a fence flap and renewed the fire and kept it up for several minutes at our men, who were now still advancing in the open field. They soon took the hint, however, that they would have to come to close quarters and disappeared in the mountains leaving 14 killed in the field and there were several wounded, three or four of whom were picked up by General Anderson’s command that evening as they were endeavoring to make their way through the mountains. One who was either braver or slower than his comrades remained concealed at the Run for some time and on attempting to regain his company was fired on so fiercely that he dodged behind a stump for protection and threw up his hands in submission. Captain Dillard ordered his men to cease firing and by a motion of his sword ordered the Ohio red head to approach, which he did over a distance of one hundred yards and delivered himself a prisoner. Sixteen others were also taken prisoners. We had but one killed and one wounded notwithstanding the atmosphere seemed to be surcharged with Minnie slugs. During the action a ball passed through Lieutenant Sadler’s blanket and others had holes shot in shirts, clothing, canteens, etc. The one killed was a private belonging to Captain Meadows company, who had got into the field. The one wounded belonged to Captain Dillard’s company and was probably shot by one of our own troops who were coming down the mountain and mistook the advance guard in the field for the Yankeys and but for the precaution of Col. Savage who stopped them from firing at the point of the sword there would probably have been serious damage done us."(9-10)

8-"There were thirteen killed and wounded, and seventeen captured. We lost only two killed and two or three wounded".(337)

16-"The Sixteenth lost one man at the foot of the mountain, a detail burying him while Savage with his guard held the road."(99)

4-Alfred Martin, of Company __ and brother of Mose, Jessee and Lawson from Van Buren County, was the first man killed in an action against the Federals.(#5)

16-"The brigade lost no time in getting away, General Lee riding in front and leading it. Stewart’s Run was not seen, and the march continued on another road to the point that Donelson had been directed to hold."(99)

8-"This was our first fight, and we then regarded it as an affair of considerable magnitude, receiving praise all round for coolness and courage. ... We all had flint-lock muskets, and they had all got wet the previous night. During the fight, Lieut. Denton, of my company, by no means an expert with a gun, got hold of one by some means during the fight and proceeded to load and fire rapidly. Directly a difficulty got up somehow between him and his gun, and he went backward flat on the ground, the gun over his head, and the blood ran freely from his face. I thought he was shot and went to him. On inquiry, he said he was not shot, but that he could not account for the sudden mystery by any reasoning, except a treacherous ball from the enemy had struck his faithful musket in the muzzle and driven her backward over him, "gouging" his forehead with the cock as she went. But some of larger experience with this peculiar weapon hinted that perhaps he had loaded faster than he had fired, until really the breech became the "business end" of his piece; and with some reluctance he accepted the theory".(337-8)

2-"...we resumed the retreat in the direction of Big Spring, and after marching till the day was well nigh spent we halted at _________ and fed, the now very hungry brigade, on saltless beef,..."(17)

8-"... about 12 o'clock our command fell back, and marched about ten miles to Snider's Hill and camped".(338)

2-"This being the first march this part of our men were ever on, absent from the supply train, and not supposing they would be allowed to suffer, had wasted their rations, or rather, eat them up at the outset of the march and had consequently, become very hungry - we called it starving".(17)

2-Sept 13-clear & pleasant-3 p.m. took up march for Cheat Mt. Valley for four miles, stopping where they captured the company of pickets near Elk Run, and slept on their arms all night.(17)

2-Sept 14-15- At Elk Run, depart on the 14th in the morning through showers to Gen. Loring's H.Q. and on to Mingo Flat on Huntersville Pike where they stopped near midnight with hard rains".(18)

4-Within four miles of Valley Mt..(#5)

21-"We reached our point about dark and lay in line of battle on our arms in about one and a half miles of the enemies breastworks. We remained there all the following day impatient for a fight but there being no attack made in front we marched back under orders and joined Gen. Loring at the mouth of Conley’s Run on the pike, being much pestered in the march cutting a road over the mountain for the artillery. On reaching the pike about dark we found there all of our forces and immediately commenced a backward move for Valley Mountain. We marched until one o’clock at night in a very heavy rain and camped for the balance of the night renewing the march early next morning we reached headquarters at Valley Mountain in the evening and our Brigade passed on two miles further and encamped at Big Springs."(11)

4-16th Regiment arrives at Valley Mountain.(#5)

8-Arriving at Valley Mountain, Dillard stated that the men were "disappointed, and in fact grumbling, because we were 'spoiling for a fight' ".(338)

2-Womack was so worn out on this occasion that he turned over his command to his Lieutenants and fell "by the way-side".(18)

2-Sept 16-warm & rainy-march at daylight and arrive at Big Spring around noon, very fatigued, and "several of the men barefooted". The regiment stayed here through the 21st, recooperating from the tiresome march.(18)

2-Sept 18-Lt. H. Denton was detailed to Tenn. to procure winter clothing.(18)

2-Sept 20-A picket fired a gun causing the regiment to be deployed into line around 11 p.m. and remained there until assured of no danger.(18)

2-Sept 22-Rainy & cool-Brigade marched at dawn from Camps at Big Spring down Huntersville Rd. and camped at Gipson's. About 10 miles. The rear guard had serious problems with the wagons on the muddy roads.(18)

2-Sept 23-clear-first frost of the season-March was continued to Greenbrier bridge, Greenbrier River, six miles west from Huntersville and camped.(19)

2-Sept 24-Regt. is stationary, but temporarily transferred to Anderson's Brigade.(19)

8-The regiment, in conjunction with five others, was ordered to march hard and fast to the relief of Gen. Wise and Gen. Floyd. "For this purpose five regiments were selected from the entire command- the Forty-second and Forty-eighth Virginia, and the First, Seventh and Sixteenth Tennessee- and without any baggage or transportation wagons, except for ammunition and flour, we hurried forward ... on to Little Sewell Mountain, ...".(338)

2-Sept 25-Marched for Lewisburg in the evening, traveling 12 miles before dark and camping 1 mile west of the road.(19)

2-Sept 26-Thur-warm & rainy-Marched 18 miles and camped at Mr. Nickold's 3 miles north of Frankford. "Here we passed a most disagreeable night, the rain fell so incessantly that we could not build fires, and consequently were compelled to take the drenching rain like our faithful horses which stood shivering by".(19)

4-The regiment stopped near a farmhouse and soon its outbuildings, fences and trees were crowded with men searching for relief from the rain.(#5)

3-"I an Hayett fixed us a bed of rails and lay on them all night to keep up out of the water at daylight wake up our fens rails beat by the heavy raines. After being washed by rain I felt some wat worsted but Col. Savage seeing his men wet and kold give them a dram".(1)

2-Sept 27-Resumed march early in the morning through a rain that lasted till 5p.m. camping in the vicinity of Lewisburg, about 12 miles.(19)

3-"... incampt in a barnd all of us were very wet and chilled. If I had not found shelter I think I would er froze. I lay in the third story of the barnd I grabled out me a hole in the oats selp al night by cloth being wet they smelt like spilt foder".(1)

2-Sept 28-They continued on another 13 miles until encamping near Meadowbluff.(19)

2-Sept 29-March is resumed to the top of Sewell Mountain, arriving there late at night after wading two swollen streams nearly a quarter mile in width and camping atop the mountain 1,000 yd.s from the enemy occupying another hill.(20)

8-"One day we came to a low stretch of marshy country, through which the solitary road passed, that was covered by a lake more than a quarter of a mile across; and it was truly a sample of their unflinching devotion, as well as a scene most picturesque, to see four or five thousand men stripped to their red shirts, with knapsack and gun upon their shoulders, wading, splashing, and yelling through that cold lake, almost to their armpits in water; but they seemed to regard the it as a matter-of-course affair-- merely a part of the checkered programme of war."(340)

3-"We waded water rump deep. It was very cold my lages was as red as doves when I got through at this place...".(1)

16-The Sixteenth reached Sewell Mountain about a day before Gen. Anderson’s other troops, and was thus placed in command of the troops on the right side of the National road. Gen. Floyd, already present had command of the units on the left, Wise Legion and a battalion of Baltimore artillery. (100)

8-"Col. Savage was here complimented by Gen. Lee placing him in command of a brigade on the extreme right."(339)

21-"… the left being occupied by Floyd’s legion and the right center by Wises’ legion and Tennessee troops with a strong force in reserve to the rear of the center."(13)

2-Sept 30-"We have now been without tents, and nearly without blankets since the 8th inst. and although we have needed them very much in that time, yet on no occasion have we felt their absence so sensibly as here, where the constant cutting winds sweep incessantly across the towering point."(20)

8-"Thus the two armies rested for several days, each, as it were, flaunting their flags in the other's face, while their respective bands alternated in playing from time to time the menacing strains of 'Yankee Doodle" and "Dixie". In the deep valley or ravine between them the pickets of both, by tacit consent, were using water out of the same spring; yet no one was allowed by the other to loiter after filling his canteens."(339)

4-While most of the men were lacking tents, General Lee, who was also present atop the mountain, had been lucky enough to have one erected. Clark wandered near to "take a look at him."(#6)

3-Sept 31-"Night has come again and I have lade myself on my humble bed that I have construcked to day it three poles one each side of me a small one in the middle so as to swag a little, some leaves on them and this furnished me with a place to rest".(2)

3-Oct 3-Etter collects chestnuts.(2)

2-Oct 4-Commenced building breastworks.(20)

8-"We were expecting and hoping daily that the enemy would continue his advance, and attack us; still we saw no demonstrations of that kind. Impatience began to manifest itself among the men and officers of all ranks. We wanted to fight, and that quickly."(339)

2-Oct 6-Started on pursuit of withdrawing Federal forces for a mile or two, then turned back and returned to camp.(21)

8-"Colonel Savage was ordered to reconnoiter and find out the facts, which he did with my company and a few others as skirmishers."(339)

21-"… Captain Brown’s, Captain Dillard’s and Capt. Savage’s and one Virginia company and advance them as skirmishers with caution - until we reached the heights of their encampment and lo and behold, nothing was there to be seen but signs of a precipitate retreat. We got some provision stores - a few wagons and horses - some camp equipage etc. and one prisoner. Gen. Lee and his aids reached us as we were ascending the mountain and when we reported back that the hill was clear he came up and looking through his glass discovered the train at distance of 13 miles. Showing that they had left in the early part of the night and traveled all night. Some cavalry were ordered to follow, which they did but the distance was too great to overtake many stragglers. They took two or three prisoners and a few horses and probably some stores. We hoped to pursue and in fact so confident were we of doing such that Col. Murry soon appeared at the base of the hill with the balance of our regiment, but we were ordered back to our position and here we are now regretting their sudden flight. They seemed to be well fed from the oily signs of their encampment and were blessed in camp even with ladies as we found bonnets, hoop skirts and one of the nices wee bit of cradles to rock the baby in perhaps - indubitable signs of the feminine gender - and of course these scarce articles were captured instantly."(14-5)

2-Oct 7-The troops had by this time constructed brush houses, but even these could not reduce the discomfort caused by a constant rainfall all day and night that forced the men to sit upright all night.(21)

3-Oct 8-Etter washes his clothes for the first time since departing Tennessee.(2)

2-Oct 12--Broke camp and commenced a march toward Lewisburg late in the evening, making four miles before stopping to camp on Sewell Creek.(21)

3-"... it was today that an old man came to hunting the boys that killed his sheep and wanted pay for them we plegd him so much that he was glad to git off without money".(2)

8-"... we came back as far as Lewisburg, and near there camped a week or two in a heavy forest without tents."(339)

2-Oct 13-20-Remain encamped on Sewell Creek, commence drilling.(21-22)

8-Regarding their camp ground, Captain Dillard remarked that, "... we came to camp on a wide, rocky creek, and soon had log fires up and down it for a long distance on either side". Being without cooking utensils, he stated that, "... as if by instinct some commenced washing off the large flat rocks all along the water's edge, and soon began kneading up dough with the dispatch and earnestness of hungry beavers, while others prepared sharp sticks from the undergrowth and around them twined ringlets of dough in all fantastic shapes and stuck them around to bake before the fire. With these brown rolls and fat beef broiled on hot rock plates we soon had a delicious meal".(340)

20-"Oct 19 cloudy with some rain this morning J. K. P. Evans died at 10 A.M. drilling by co."(5)

3-Oct 20-Poke Evens died during the night.(2)

2-Oct 21-Marched to Meadow Bluff in the morning and encamped.(22)

2-Oct 22-Marched on to Lewisburg and on two miles north on the Huntersville Rd. and camped.(22)

2-Oct 23-Wed.-Regt. marched to Frankford and beyond arriving at Greenbrier bridge on the 25th camping there for the night and remaining there on the 26th. Womack had stopped to check on some men whom he had left behind on the march to Sewell Mt., his men were recovering but his "waiting boy" had gotten worse and was found to be "past recovering." "Reese" died on the 25th at 2 p.m.. "He was a faithful servant, and expressed a lively hope in the atoneing blood of the Lamb of God".(22)

3-Oct 24-Left at nine a.m. and halted at Millport.(2)

3-Oct 25-In the morning, before the march, "Savage give the boys a lector concerning leaving ranks going to neighbors houses an plundering some looked down". The regiment arrived at Greenbrier Bridge that afternoon and encamped one mile from the bridge.(2)

2-Oct 27-Sunday-clear & pleasant-Marched in the evening to Huntersville camping 2 miles north of town.(23)

3-Camped on the Geenbank Road.(3)

4-Ben Randals and Jim Mitchell got into a fist fight, "but were too well matched to do much hurt".(#6)

16-After passing the regiments in their front, the 1st and 7th Tennessee, near Lewisburg, the regiment was rewarded for reaching Huntersville first. "A staff officer (Colonel Stark, afterwards made brigadier-general, and killed at Sharpsburg) said to Savage: "There is a fine lot of clothing for distribution among the troops here, and because of your rapid marches General Lee has ordered that your regiment shall get whatever the men want before a further distribution is made. The boys got shirts, shoes, pantaloons, coats and overcoats, some of which latter garments survived the war."(101)

2-Oct 28-A reunion with their tents, allowed the regt. to pitch them after nearly two months after spending the greater part of the day clearing trash and litter from their grounds. (23)

2-Oct 29-Nov 10-Remained in camps resting and recooperating.(23-24)

4-Here, many of the men began to show the stresses of being away from family and friends. Jack Rolls was court-martialed for disobeying orders. Upon conviction, he was sentenced to, "..put a fence rail on his shoulder & carry it around our regimental encampment". "Uncle Jack" became so enraged by his punishment that he swore no more service for the confederacy, and shortly thereafter, did'nt.(#6)

20-"Nov 4 cool and raining. Tillmon Keener arested for larceny brought forward and acknowledged his guilt"

3-Nov 5-Col. Parks came to us we cald him butcher.(3)

2-Nov 11-Mon-rainy-Struck tents and marched 10 miles in direction of Lewisburg. (24)

2- Nov 12-Marched 14 miles.(24)

2-Nov 13-Marched to Frankford and camped.(24)

3-The regiment encamped one mile out of town. "Parson Brooks preached for us the ladies of the town came out to see us they sung some nice tunes for us. Our boys behaved nice the girles was very pritty".(3)

2-Nov 14-Marched on to Lewisburg.(24)

3- Encamping 2 miles short of the town.(3)

3-Nov 15-Marched through Lewisburg and encamped three miles out. ??Savage would not cross his men over a swollen stream due to dangerous currents, was this a charge in his trial??(3)

2-Nov 14-Nov 30-Remained in camps at Lewisburg with cold weather and occasional snow fall.(25)

2-Nov 20-Wed-cold & rainy-"today the hearts of our regiment were made glad and our bleeding feet and protruding knees comfortable by the arrival of our winter goods, prepared for us by our friends at home. All honor to our Mothers, wives and sisters who have not forgotten our perils in these dreary mountains.(25)

5-These items from home included, "blankets, quilts, coats and almost anything to wear you could think of." James Hill and the Honorable H.L.W. Hill sent several hundred bottles of "fine apple brandy" which the boys indulged in greatly.(4)

8-"While here our regiment received a bountiful lot of winter clothing and blankets from home, together with an immense amount of letters and nicknacks from mothers, wives, and sweethearts. There were two or three car-loads of these stores sent by the parents and friends at home, under charge of Lieut. Denton, who had been detailed for that purpose. These came in good time, as there was a big snow on the ground and all were scarce of clothes and blankets."(339)

3-"Our clothing came to us most all the boys have got something we are happy tonight the boys have had a dram they well clothed and a happy set as you ever seen".(3)

2-During this period numerous men are discharged for disabilities.(24-26)

2-Dec 1-Sun.-cloudy & cold-Brike camp, marching 10 miles in direction of Red Sulfur Springs.(27)

3-"... today we crossed the river on horses the horses fel down and some of the boys was ducked clothes froze on them encamped on the side of the road".(3)

2-Dec 2-Snow storm in evening-March through Union, passing Salt Sulfur Springs camping on the roadside that night.(27)

2-Dec 3-Marched 12 miles to Red Sulfur Springs, fell back a mile and encamped on level ground without supper as rations were not availabe as had been expected.(27)

2-Dec 4-Marched at noon for 8 miles toward Newbern.

2-Dec 5-Marched 12 miles through Peterstown and crossed New River at noon, camping on a "ledge of loose rocks."(27)

2-Dec 6-clear & pleasant-Marched through Parisburg early this morning and 12 miles up New River to a bridge where they encamped.(27)

2-Dec 7-Sat.-marched 9 miles to Doublin Depot on the East Tenn. & Va. R. R. and pitched tents.(27)

2-Dec 8-Although expecting orders to Bowling Green the brigade received orders to Charleston, S.C..(27)

2-Dec 9-10-Cooked rations and prepared for the journey.(28)

2-Dec 11-Left at 9 a.m. aboard trains arriving at Lynchburg, Va. at 5 p.m.. A car derailed "bruising Capt. Donnell and 3 or 4 other men".(28)

3-"... G H. got badly hert by the car running off".(4)

2- Dec-12-Due to a lack of transportation, the regiment had to be split and travel on at different times. Womack remained with a portion at Lynchburg, and took the opportunity to prep himself for his next campaign. He had his daguereotype taken and sent home to his sister.(28)

4-The remainder of the regiment moved on by rail to Petersburg.(#7)

2- Dec 13-Took cars from Lynchburg at 9 a.m. arriving at Petersburg at 5 p.m.. Womack took command of the force that he was with.(28)

4-Main body rides rails to Weldon, N.C..(#7)

2-Dec 14-Spent the day in Petersburg and took train at 5 p.m. for Wilmington, N.C., reaching Weldon at 9 p.m., immediately changing cars and depart again at 10 p.m..(28)

4-Main body changed cars ahead of rear party and continued on past Goldsboro. " a stop for water or wood, some of the boys left the train went over into a turnip patch, pulled up some, started back to the train & Col. Savage met them at the fence took a turnip out of a fellows hand and warped him over the head with it". Late in the evening they arrived at Cape Fear River.(#7)

2-Dec 15-Arrived at Wilmington at noon, crossed Cape Fear River at 2 p.m. and took cars for Charleston, S.C.(29)

2-Dec 16-Passed Florence at 1 a.m. and arrived at Charleston at 3 p.m. and the regiment took quarters at the depot and ate dinner that had been prepared for them.(29)

2-Dec 17-Marched to the Savannah Depot.(29)

20-"left Charleston and marched three miles to the Savannah depot encamped in a pine grove took a strole in the city in the night"(8)

2-Dec 17-Etter's half of the regiment had already arrived at Charleston on the morning of the 17th and slept in the depot house. They left there late in the evening and encamped 3 miles from the depot at Camden.(4)

2-Dec 18-Traveled by rail from Savannah Depot at 3 p.m., to Pocotaligo Depot arriving there at 9 p.m., then "threw" their baggage from the train remaining there until morning.(29)

2-Dec 19-Established a "regular military style" encampment for the first time in many months, pitching tents in perfect order with assigned company streets.(29)

3-Dec 22-"I wrote home today and said I did not want no Jeff Davis at my house".(4)

8-Regarding the time that the 16th spent in South Carolina, Dillard stated, "Our brigade did duty along the coast for eight or ten miles, at various points, to guard against the landing of the enemy and to prevent the negroes from the shore communicating with them on Beaufort Island, which was then in their possession".(340) Beaufort Island is about ten miles long, and they had pickets scattered from one end to the other. We could see each other very plainly, and would often talk across in quite friendly terms. Sometimes, though, the social confab would break up with a row and a few shots exchanged with each other, together with a superabundance of cursing and tearing up the sand. At the head of the island, where a bridge had been, we got quite intimate. They had collected nearly all the skiffs and small boats in the neighborhood, and had them on their side; and frequently, under mutual pledges of honor they would come over and meet some of us out on the far end of the abutment, and talk for an hour, exchange papers, and trade in coffee and tobacco, the former being rather scarce with us and the latter with them. Sometimes we swapped knifes, and hats, etc. All this, however, was after a while found out at head-quarters, and stopped by peremtory orders. The pickets on their side at this place staid in an old framed house near the far end of the bridge, and when it was raining one day they chided us for having no shelter, and we had a few pretty saucy words about it. After a bit our men went out a little way from the beach and got the hind wheels of an old buggy, tied on a pine log about ten inches in diameter and eight feet long, blacked the muzzle end with powder, and came tearing down the bank in a rush to the level near the water, and wheeled her around; but before we could fire, their sentry, who was stationed near the door, cried the alarm and discharged his piece in the air, while the whole squad came tumbling pell-mell out of the house and scattered in every direction. Some kept running, while others fell flat on their bellies in the sand, till our boys, swinging the hats in the air and shouting "bravo!" broke to cover. It was too good a hoax to fight over, so the Yanks shook their fists and swore at us a while, and went in out of the weather."(341)

18-Seventeen year old R. C. Carden, and his brother James A. Carden, had missed the West Virginia campaign. Robert had been ill, and his brother on furlough. Rejoining the regiment, shortly before receiving orders to South Carolina, they found themselves even less experienced than their now ‘battle-hardened’ comrades. "Two companies were sent out to Gardner’s Corners, eight miles from where our command was camped and a detail was sent out from Gardner’s Corners to Port Royal. Every day we did picket duty as the Yankees were in force on Buford’s Island. Right there was where I saw my first Yankees. We could see them walking around while we were on picket. When we were out we would gather oysters and lived high with plenty of oysters, sweet potatoes. We, being green and not knowing when the Yankees might run over us, would get awfully scared sometimes at night, when we heard the porpoise splashing in the water, and we were sure the Yankees were coming and we would get ready to receive them, but they never came."(Apr. 5)

16-"Soon after the brigade was camped at Pocotaligo General Donelson caused Colonel Savage to be arrested for disobedience of his orders in West Virginia. A court-martial was assembled but Savage had no defense, and the sentence of the court-martial suspended him from the command of his regiment for a short period. The sentence by military law confined Savage to his quarters with his regiment. General Lee modified the sentence so as to allow Savage to spend the time for which he was suspended in the city of Savannah. Twice while Savage was under arrest the Yankees attempted to make raids from the island of Beaufort across the Port Royal River, and each time General Pemberton released Savage from arrest and placed him in command of his regiment, saying that he was unwilling for the regiment to go into battle without Savage being commander. When the danger passed Savage would again go under arrest."(109)

2-Dec 23-The regiment was moved "about 5 miles south from Pocotaligo on the road leading to Mackey's Point". Womack's and Shield's Companies were ordered two miles further down towards the coast in a large cotton field.(30)

3-Dec 24-Thomas Brown was accidentally shot by a man named Tips in Captain Yorks company.(4)

8-"We spent the winter almost as a holiday, having but little to do comparatively, while we lived sumptuously on fish and oysters."(341)

20-"Dec 25 Christmas very warm held an election for 4 & 5 sergeant J. P. Green and R. A. Webb was elected"(8)

3-Dec 26-Army regulations were read to the camp.(4)

2-Dec 26-Womack bought for his company 126lb.s of tobacco for $42, 10lb.s of soda for $5 and several other items for the comfort of his men.(30)

3-Dec 31-Dress Parade in the evening.(4)

20-"had an inspection of arms by Col Murry"


3-Jan 1-"We was ordered to hold an election for Mager but did not have time to count out the vots we was order to go to gardners corners as they was fighting at that 10 mils from us. Arrived there after dark fighting had started we was placed in an old field. I lay all night in line of battle without blankets. I was much child."(4)

2-Jan 1-2- Fighting near Port Royal caused some excitement amongst the men.(31)

3-Jan 2-"No Yanks come and we was ordered to fall back one mile. I was very hungry. Some boys give me some meat and bread. We got some sweet potatoes to eat."(4)

4-The regt. marched all night in direction of Port Royal, halting at night and camping.(#9)

2-Jan 3- Cannonading heard in the direction of Page's Pt.(31)

3-Jan 7-Regt. marched to Page's Point for coastal guard duty. "Went to pages point to releave Guniwins regiment. We are now in site of the yankeys nothing but broud river seperating us. Capt Dillard's company went on picket down on the coast."(5)

3-The regiment trades off picket duty with Fulton's Regt. over the next month.(6)

2-Jan 7-Womack's Co. began work on Rocky Pt. Fort.(32)

2-Jan 8-Cannonading off Mackay's Pt.(32)

20-"Jan 9 health good fortifying rapidly stood picket at the old Jenkins chirch"

3-Jan 10-"Dillards men killed two negers that was trying to git to the yankeys".(5)

3-Jan 11-"I.G. Cunningham, Samuel Barker went to bery the negr that was killed. We was releaved by thee companeys of Col. Fultons men. arrived at camp at night".(5)

20-"Jan 12 volunteered and stood picket at Mckeys point saw yankees in their boats made ready to shoot at them but they did not come near enough"

2-Jan 16-Womack commences the employment of "Fred Green, a boy of color, for a cook and waiter, for ten dollars per month".(33)

3-Jan 18-"James Mooney starts home today I sent some of my cloth and some cotton seed home".(5)

3-Jan 21-"H.M. Moffitt left for home today. We went down to pages point on pickett. I an Fate, C. M., Gyp Parks, Chick Huse stood to gether. It was a stormy and raney night, one that will try the heart of a solger. I got very wet and cold. We could not have fire on pickett".(5)

2-Jan 22-Womack superintended the work on western portion of Stony Pt. Fort.(33)

2-Jan 25-Election for major held to fill Goodbar's vacancy, H.H. Faulkner elected.(33)

20-"Jan 27 working on the fortifications"

3-Etter refers to H. H. Faulkner as "Tip".(5)

3-Jan 30-"On picket to day some yankeys come almost in shooting range of me. Col. Savage under arrest. Mury come down and stade all night".(5)

3-Etter mentions picket duty at Page's Pt., Confederate Hill, Frashers Pt.

20-"Feb 2 still cloudy and cool nothing in sight at the point every thing quite"

20-"Feb 3 clear & pleasant wrote a letter to Miss M. A. - and one to Miss M. P. R. heavy cannonading in the direction of Savanna"

20-"Feb 5 clear and very warm I was weigh to day and one hundred and 69 lbs"

3-Feb 6-"Moved our camping ground some two hundred yards".(5)

20-"Feb 7 dark and raining stood picket at Mckeys point the yankees tried to land"

20-"Feb 8 yankeys plenty in sight returned from my post my health good"

20-"Feb 9 the yankees made another atempt to land but was driven back by our pickets"

2-Feb 10- men heard of the surrender of Ft. Donelson.(35)

2-Feb 14-"Had a whiskey melee in camp this morning before day, resulting in the stabbing of W.T. Mayberry and severe bruising of 3 or 4 others.(35)

20-"Feb 14 clear and pleasant capt shields company moved on account of a falling between them and our men"

20-"Feb 16 cloudy and cool great excitement in camps owing to the fight at fort Donelson"

8-Regarding General Donelson, Dillard wrote: "I well remember his appearance when in South Carolina I broke to him the news of the fall of Fort Donelson. I had just got a paper from Charleston as he was riding by our camp, and read him the dispatch while he leaned forward on his horse gazing at me as a man hearing a death-knell. Easing himself back in his seat, with his eyes fixed without object through the long moss drapery of the woods, he said in his subdued tones, "Well, well, well! that is the saddest piece of news that ever fell upon my ears during life." He then rode toward his quarters through the dark forest of live-oaks".(342)

20-"Feb 17 cloudy and warm reported that Nashville was surendered much excitement"

3-Feb 19-"Yankeys pickets fired on our pickets to day".(6)

20-"Feb 20 clear and pleasant saw the yankees mooving some cotton"

20-"Feb 22 clear and very warm took trip out on the water gathered oisters"

20-"Feb 23 clear and pleasant visited Mr. Cuthprets house and garden a nice place"

2-Feb 25-27-Womack attended the trial of Savage at Old Pocotaligo as a witness.(37)

20-"Feb 27 all is still on the cost all the boys in fine spirits"

2-Feb 28-General Inspection by LtCol W.L. Moore(37)

20-"Feb 28 very warm and cloudy some of the boys taking on about our downfall in Tenn."

3-Mar 2-While on picket duty at Frasher's Pt, "Fate bout a fat hen an we cooked an et her with orsters".(6)

2-Mar 3-4-5-Womack attended the trial of Savage, and was detailed to McMinnville on the 5th.(38)

20-"Mar 4 dark cloudy and raining held an election to see who should go home Wm Bell got to go"

4-Savage is acquitted.(#10)

20-"Mar 6 very pleasant capt P.P. Wm Bell and A. Brown started for Tenn."

3-Mar 8-Etter received permission to visit home upon hearing that his children were sick.(6)

20-"Mar 9 William Gretson came in to day and reports the yankeys at Liberty Dekalb co. the boys all cursing and swarin"

2-Mar 9-Womack and his comrades arrived back in McMinnville by the 9th. Womack, while at home noted: "..I met with many of my old friends, a few of whom seemed to disrelish the Confederate uniform, and were therefore cool and distant".(38)

20-"Mar 10 cloudy and very warm went with Jesee Walling after beef health good"

20-"Mar 14 cloudy and warm went to the Depot"

4-March 15-At least a portion of the Sixteenth Regiment was sent to Grahamsville, 20 miles west of Pocotaligo, and camped one mile outside the city, taking over recently vacated cabins. One particular cabin, shaped as a wrectangle, was referred to as the "Ballroom". Many times, "Uncle Sam McCorkle would mount the stage with his fiddle, & all who could dance had a good time".(#9)

4-"War Songs":South Carolina girls won't eat Mush (x3)

When you go to kissem

They all say hush

Get along sambo sound yer horn

We will eat sheep meat & gnaw the bone

And shave old clay when the weather gets warm.(#9)

20-"Mar 16 clear and warm had an inspection of arms by Lieut Col More"

20-"Mar 18 clear and pleasant hird of our defeat at newburn N.C."

4-March 20-The enemy landed at Bluffton, and the 16th was called up for the march the morning of the 21st. They stepped off for their journey early, but upon arriving there after marching 24 miles, the enemy had withdrawn, and the regiment was ordered to return to Grahamsville. Some of the men completed the 48 mile round trip before midnight.(#9)

5-Lt. Col. Murray was in charge of the regiment for this foray, and ordered the men to return to camp at will by the next day. Several men took advantage of this and did not return for two or three days.(5)

3-Mar 23-Savage returned to command of the regiment following his court martial.(7)

20-"Mar 23 clear and pleasant remained in camps all day cooking and eating and playing ball with the boys"

3-Mar 24-29-The regiment drilled all day, by company in the morning and by Battalion in the evening.(7)

20-"Mar28 clear and pleasant detailed for guard deauty was placed as guard around A. Nunnly C. Corder & W. C. Morton"

16-Mar 29-"Camp Grahamsville, S. C., March 29, 1862.

"To the Friends of the Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, at Home:

In this hour of confusion and peril, I deem it not improper to address you a few words in regard to the impending dangers and the future conduct of the regiment. In more fortunate times I have warned you of the stern realities now upon us; and whether my words have proved true or not, you will remember. In regard to the regiment, it may be said that in July last, the men were eager to assist in Virginia; in December more anxious to go to South Carolina than Tennessee; now they feel it a duty as soon as discharged (commencing May 14) to return to their State, where the danger is greatest. And although injustice in some things has been done them, they will, with few exceptions, promptly re-enter the service, believing it right to fight for their country under all circumstances. Others desiring to join will have an opportunity to do so until the number is increased to twelve hundred and fifty.

In this contest, your position imposes on you a high duty, The mountains have in all ages been the refuge of liberty, and it is in the power of the people to make the Cumberland range an asylum for the unfortunate, and immortal by glorious achievements if our homes are polluted by invasion. The ladies and children are patriotic everywhere; I have yet to find a woman cold or doubtful of the issue, and who was not devoted and ready to sacrifice all rather than be conquered. Let our weak-hearted men take courage from this example. Supply the places of those trusty rifles unwisely taken from you, and be ready to make every suitable ambuscade the grave of a Lincolnite.

I warn you against undue excitement. Greater injuries oftentimes result from this cause than are inflicted by the enemy. Common sense and cool reflection should govern your conduct. When danger is seen, it is easy to avoid it, and the means of victory and safety can be provided. Whether the misconceptions of public agents have been the cause of misfortunes in Tennessee, is a question for the future historian, but I may say, that in revolutions, no man should be permitted to hold office a moment longer than is consistent with the public good, or under repeated failures. Want of success should be held prima facie evidence of unfitness to command. If any man has entered this war expecting to fight in the rear rank-win glorious victories, and enjoy fame long after its termination, he should be forced to the front, turned out or shot. The places of such can be easily supplied, and this contest requires that every man’s life, fortune and honor be put to the hazard.

"Let none doubt the final success of the revolution. If the present government should fail, and those now commanding be conquered, the people will call men from the workshop and the field to lead them to victory and freedom. It is not wisdom to halt between two opinions, to weep over the decrees of inevitable destiny, or to expect aid from England or France-nor does Providence, in my opinion, help any but the vigilant and the brave. Cowards are fit to be slaves, and are always conquered-men worthy to be free, will rise in their might and make the greatest danger a hundred fold less. Rigid discipline and heroic fighting will secure the victory, and better that the ocean waves should roll over us than that the South should be conquered. If we cannot live free, we should die gloriously, leaving patriotic deeds as beacon lights upon the pages of history. Shall descendents from the heroes of King’s Mountain and New Orleans bow before a Northern conqueror? He who accepts less than is his, is a slave, whether it be from the ‘Union,’ an emperor, or Lincoln. The people once worshiped the Union ‘as a God’-regarding it as an assurance of imperishable glory and peerless grandeur among the nations. This ambitious sentiment heretofore kept them together. It held the men of Tennessee and the Middle States ‘spell bound,’ long after reason had pointed the pathway of safety. It caused the people of Babel to say ‘let us build a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven, and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.’ It controlled the conduct of Alexander, Caesar and Bonaparte, and of all the tyrants who have scourged mankind. This idol of our ambition, like most false gods, has been worshipped under various names-such as ‘extending the area of freedom,’ ‘an ocean-bound Republic,’ ‘lifting up the down trodden nations, and making the world free and happy.’ But alas ! the tower whose top we hoped might reach to heaven, and make us a name surpassing all ancient and modern fame, has been shattered and broken, and confounded and divided forever. And whether this be the work of the people or of Providence, the facts are unalterable, all history teaching that revolutions never turn back. If national grandeur without freedom was the desire of our ancestors, they ought to have remained in English Union. Can Lincoln and his generals quiet the ocean, build a tower to heaven, or move the eternal hills from their foundations? As well may they hope to do these things as conquer the Southern people if true to themselves. We fight in defence of rights secured by the valor of Revolutionary heroes, and for which the best men of other nations have offered up their lives upon the field and the scaffold. The course of Lincoln is a fatal return to the bloody doctrines of past ages-the divine right of kings to maintain their ill-gotten power by the faggot and the sword. His followers the Union (the king) can do no wrong, which doctrine has sometimes been construed to mean, that if the royal carriage should destroy the citizen, his majesty would in no way be liable for the injury.

And such is the doctrine that Andrew Johnson and the soldiers of General Buell are attempting to enforce, and who in substance say that the government must be maintained, no matter who may perish beneath the royal wheels, because they deem it more important that the government move on than that the people should live and be free. To accomplish this they are willing to blot out the rebel states, to reduce the white race to the level of the negro, and to hopeless infamy and ruin. They say to the South we will build upon this continent the greatest power that ever has existed, but your part of the inheritance is cut off, and your posterity shall perish. Hereafter history will record the glory of the Northern men alone-the South shall only be remembered by her infamy.

This insolent injustice is enough to make our Revolutionary sires rise from the grave, and our rocks and mountains mutter for vengeance. We have only to let the Yankees know that the tower of Northern glory must rest upon the dead bodies of five hundred thousand Southern soldiers, and his heart will sicken, and his arm become palsied before the magnitude of the task. If the war be ‘sharp and bloody,’ holding every man to a stern responsibility from the private soldier up to the President, in less than twelve months our victorious standards will wave in triumph over the soil of a beaten foe. Respectfully,

John H. Savage

Colonel Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers

Written while suspended from command."(111-3)

2-Mar 30-Womack's company was on Graham's Neck.(41)

20-"Mar 30 clear and very warm Capt Womack and R. R. Womack arived here to day bringing me several letters"

2-Genral Donelson's H.Q. was at Grahamsville.(41)

3-Apr 1-"The Yankees landed at Pages Point burned house". The regiment quickly received orders to move, but after cooking two days worth of rations, the order was cancelled.(7)

3-Apr 2-4-The men drilled all day, by Company and Battalion. On the 4th, "Waldo left his post to day and got a buggy and run all over town. I was one of the police that went after him. Searching the town we caught him at midnight. We put him in the gard hous. I retired to rest after a hard walk".(7)

20-"Apri 2 clear and warm detailed for guard deauty hird of the yankee caverly being at Mcminnville"

20-"Apri 6 cloudy and warm spent the day in washing and cleaning up guns, had a dress perade in the eavning"

20-"Apri 7 clear and very hot lay in camps all day playing ball in the morning and eavning"

20-"Apri 8 I was detailed for picket gard at Mckeys point the weather very warm health good"

20-"Apri 9 Very dark with a heavy thunder storms returned from my post and lay in camps the balance of the day hird good news from General Beauregard"

20-"Apri 10 a fine day nothing of importance in camps several yankees to be seen on the island received orders to go to Tenn. Was up cooking all night the boys all hollowing and hooping"

4-The boys left South Carolina with many fond memories, perhaps the most pleasant times they spent were there. C.H. Clark recalled, "..swamps and green moss hanging from tops of trees to the ground the black squirrels & the alligator the boys caught and the 164 lb. cannon ball many boys failed to shoulder". These, as well as, Page's Point, the Pine forrests, the oyster banks, and "..the big 'live oak' tree near the Stewart House under whose branches I stood guard many a night" would never fade from the memories of these country boys. (#8)

2-Apr 11-marched in the morning to Pocotaligo, left there at 11 a.m. for Grahamsville and arriving there remained until 5 p.m., at which time engines were reversed and the regt. headed to Charleston.(42)

2-Apr 12-Arrived at Charleston at 8 a.m., and left for Augusta at 10 p.m..(42)

4-An Irishman of the Sixteenth poked his head out of a boxcar door and was knocked out into the swamp and presumed dead until he arrived on the next train.(#10)

2- Apr 13-Arrived in Augusta at 3 a.m. and left for Atlanta at 8:30 a.m., arriving there at 8 p.m..(42)

17-"Arrived in Augusta Sunday the 13th & as we passed through the City Ladies mostly cheered us."(46)

2-Apr 14-Leave Atlanta at 4 a.m., go 60 miles, reverse back to Marietta at 5 p.m.,ordered back to Chattanooga.

2-Apr 15-At Dalton at sunrise, ordered back to Atlanta. Leave 8 a.m., arrived at 7 p.m. and left at 8 p.m. for West Pt..

2-Apr 16-"Our train ran off the track this morning at Newman mashing nine boxes, killing one man & wounding several others, also killed 6 horses".(42)

3-"...the train run off the track nine boxes turned over killed one man by the name of Green and wounded 25 more, killed seven horses. It is a wonder it did not kill all in the boxes".(8)

17-"… the cars ran off the track, killed one man of the 8th Reg. & wounded several of the 16th Reg."(46)

3-Later in the morning, while waiting for the train to move out once again, the men, with or without permission went into the nearby town in search of food. "I went up in town and got my diner. They would not charge me a cent and said they would never take money from a solger. She said that she had a son out and she would think hard of any person that would not give him something to eat when hungry. The ladies came down to the depot with nice flowers and gave them to the boys. A girl by the name of Ware give me a nice bunch of flowers. Arrived at West Point late in the evening expected to git something to eat but got nothing".(8)

4-Apr 17-Arrived at West Point by 4 p.m..(#10)

17-"Here we changed cars, took the Montgomery, Ala. Rail Road, which was 87 miles."(46)

4-Apr 18-Arrived in Montgomery, AL. and departed later by steamboat for Mobile.(#10)

20-"Apri 18 clear and warm left Celma at 8 A.M. traviled all day in the Southern Republic making good speed night coming on we all fell asleep day light found us in three mils off Mobiel"

17-"We got off & taken the Boat on the Ala. River. The name of the Boat was "Southern Republic".(46)

3-"The privates was not alloud to ride up in the cabin and I did not feel hapy and free lik I did when I rode on the broad Miss. with the ladies and et at the first table".(8)

4-Apr 19-Arrived at Mobile by 10 a.m.. The men were allowed to do limited sight seeing while there while awaiting transportation. Departed for Corinth.(#10)

4-Apr 20-22-Regiment travels by rail and arrives on the 23rd by 1 a.m..(#10)

20-"Apri 20 cloudy and raining remained in camps untill 4 P.M. we then took the cars for Corinth and traviled the balance of the day and night owing to the water giving out in the tinder we stoped at 4 A.M. 60 miles from Mobiel"

20-"Apri 21 remained where we stoped untill about 2 P.M. we then started and traviled the balance of the day and night pased Waynsbouro in Wayne County health bad"

20-"Apri 22 still traviled on and reached Corinth about 2 o,clock in the night remained in the cars till morning health bad"

3-The men stayed in the box cars until sunup. At dawn they moved out and setup a temporary camp near town.(8)

20-"Apri 23 couldy and warm spent the day in fixing up camps camped on a level in sight of Corinth"

3-Apr 24-"Dress Parade in the morning".(8)

20-"Apri 24 cloudy and very warm marched out on the field to receive orders visited B. J. Hills Regt returned to camps had orders to cook 5 days rations"

4-Upon arriving, the men met up with Col. Hill's Regt with whom they were well acquainted, as many men had friends and relatives from home within their ranks. The regiments exchanged stories of the fight at Shiloh and experiences on the coast of Carolina.(#10)

2-Apr 26- Regimental inspection.(43)

20-"Apri 27 clear and warm great talk of atacking the enemy visited B. J. Hills Regt"

2-Apr 30-"Moved from our camp east of Corinth to a more agreeable place about three miles north of town".(44)

2-May 1-The cautious advance of the enemy is noted.(44)

3-A portion of the regiment moves to block the ford at "Cipress Creek". Etter is relieved to rest once again on Tennessee soil.(9)

2-May 2-"Moved one half mile back in the direction of Corinth".(44)

3-Etter, and his portion of the regiment on duty at "Cipress Creek", march back to camp a distance of nine miles.(9)

20-"May 3 remained in camps all day cloudy and warm our Regt was sent out on picket for four days"

2-May 3-Regt. is sent on picket duty on Purdy Road.(44)

7-Carnes’ Battery: "During the remaining stay at Corinth, Carnes’ Battery, having been assigned to Brig.-gen. Daniel S. Donelson’s brigade, passed most of the time on picket, where the line of works crossed the Purdy road, about three miles north of the railroad crossing."(811)

3-"All the regiment is on picket. ... All is wet and cold, have no shelter".(9)

2-May 4-rainy-Regt. is on picket duty (in the outer pits) through the May 8 when relieved by the 154thTenn.(44)

2-May 8-Reorganization of the regiment takes place. Savage commanding, D.M. Donnell, Lt.Col and Capt. P.H. Coffee, Major.(44)

3-"All is confused to day we have to elect officers or have them appointed. This was much against our feeling as we did not like to be compeled to do anything of the kind. We wished to return home when the present expected battle was fought and reinlist again as it suited us tho we was not allowed that privilege but few of our company votted. I never give a vote in the regment and I never will under no such a law. Cousin Will was elected Capt. H. L. Sims first lieu. I. M. Parks secon, John H. Akeman third, Cousin Will and H. L. Sims resined would not except the place assined them. I think the more of them for not excepting the office over us under the present circumstances".(9)

2-May 9-Brigade went to the rifle pits at 4 a.m., and returned at 6 a.m..(45)

2-May 10-Practice skirmish drill.(45)

3-May 11-"Election to be held to fill the place of those who would not ecept the offices. I. M. Parks elected captan Cousin Will first lieu.".(9)

2-May 12-"Great activity throughout the army. Five days rations issued and three cooked. Enemy advancing and we anxiously await his approach.(45)

2-May 13-Regt. went to the rifle pits without occurance.(45)

2-May 14-The regt. stayed in the pits, 3 miles north of Corinth, until 11 a.m. and then returned to camps.(45)

3-May 15-"I went 2 miles this morning after water and when obtained it was inferior drink there is no good water here. ... Ike Howard died and was beried he was a member of Yorks Company".(9)

4-Isaac Howard, a messmate of Clark, died at Corinth. When he was placed in his grave and covered with dirt, a detail of four men fired into the dirt, as was common practice when soldiers died of disease.(#11)

3-May 16-The regiment went on picket in the morning and exchanged shots with Federal pickets in the distance.(9)

2-May 17- A board of examiners came to inspect the newly elected officers of the regiment. (46)

2-May 18-Sunday-cloudy-cooler-The army was rushed to the entrenchments early in the morning.(46)

3-An election was held for 2nd Lt. in Etter's company. Lafayette Hayes was elected and promoted.(9)

2-May 18-21-Regt. continued to go on picket and outpost duty.(46)

2-May 21-The regt. received orders to be ready to advance against the enemy in the morning.(47)

3-"We are all quiet yet. Orders to meet the enemy in morning. Col. Savage made a speach to us this evening it was animateing indead".(9)

2-May 22-"Moved at sunrise against the enemy and took position four hundred yd.s in his front, where we remained till 3 in the evening, where on account of our extreme right having failed to make the attack we returned within our intrenchments & remain during the night".(47)

2-May 23-Heavy skirmishing, the regt. was moved at double-quick to the trenches.(47)

3-The regiment's pickets were engaged heavily into the evening with the loss of one man killed and "some" wounded.(9)

2-May 24-The new officers of the regt. took positions in their companies.(47)

2-May 25-The regt. moved to the trenches at 4 p.m., on no approach of the enemy, they returned to camps.(47)

2-May 26-The regt. cooked two days rations and moved to the Chamber's House, across the state line. Womack commanded the line of skirmishers and had conducted a good deal of sharpshooting at distant range, no casualties.(47)

2-May 27-Womack's skirmishers remained engaged firing at the enemy "as they dodged from tree to tree" until 4 a.m..(47)

5-"..a Yankee in my immediate front and I singled out each other. He was behind a good sized oak tree. I had a small post oak to stand behind. He was sending his bullets too close to me for comfort. I could hear the wax fry on them as they went by my ear. They were so very close that I resorted to a little strategy that gave me relief. I took my gunstick, placed my hat on the end of it, brought it up to the level of my head and slowly passed it out from behind the tree. Here came his bullet. As I dropped the gunstick to the ground, I had my gun ready with the hammer sprung. I came down the side of his tree to the center of the smoke and fired. he shot at me know more."(6)

3-"Yankes comenced shelling us".(10)

2-May 28-Wed.-clear & hot-"The enemy advanced on our skirmishers this morning about ten o'clock, driving them as they came. A few of our men were wounded, among them was Stephen Tate of my Co., mortally".(48)

3"They run in our pickets they plade upon us all day with grape canester and all. Steve Yates was shot in the side. he dide the next day. he was a good solger allso a man names grissem and Curley had their legs tore almost off with a grape shot. they died soon after they was hert. Three others was hert slitely. At sun set we came to camps. We are at rest to night for we are much worn out with fatigue and excitement".(10)

2-About one o'clock P.M. while my regt. was falling back before the enemy, my navy and canteen were shot from my left side by a small cannon ball or grape, the same cut off the legs of two men of Capt. Randal's Co. who were just in front of me."(48)

4-John Grissom and William Creely were the unfortunate souls that received the brunt of the grapeshot.(#11)

2-"We returned about 3 p.m. and retook our position, with some loss however to the 41st Ga. Regt., which fired a few rounds, and held it till we were released at dark."(48)

2-May 29-The regiment’s camp gear was loaded and shipped to the rear, while the regt. went to the rifle pits at 6 p.m. and remained there until 10 p.m., when they joined in the withdrawal from Corinth.(48)

3-..."marched four miles and stopt".(10)

5-That night, the regiment silently withdrew from the breastworks to Smith's Bridge over the Tuscumbia River.(7)

2-May 30-clear & hot-"After a toilsome, dark and muddy nights march, we reached the Tuscumbia river about 6 o'clock this morning and after blocking the road by felling trees, and destroying the bridges over the river halted in the swamp and lay quietly the ballance of the day, - and that too without rations".(48)

3-"At day light I went one mile and got me a good drink of water. it was very good as it was the first I had drank in the state".(10)

2-May 31-The men ate food procured from the negroes on neighboring farms.(48)

2-June 1-warm & showery-Resumed march at 4 p.m. in the direction of Okalona.(48)

3-"Reported that the yankes have cut us off. ... marched all night. I give out in my legs and could not walk. J. B. Ritchey walked and let me ride his horse. it was a great favor as the yankes was close".(10)

2-June 2-warm/heavy rains-Continued march till near nightfall making only 10 miles, and halted where Breckinridge's command was halted, falling along the roadside to sleep.(48)

2-June 3-hot & showery-"Moved this morning to Gen'l Donelson's Hd quarters, distance about 3 miles, and about the same distance west from Baldwin depo. Here we cleared off a camp ground, erected brush tents, drew two days rations and eat till the craving appetites of the hungry soldiers were once more entirely satiated".(49)

2-June 5-The regt. went two miles north to Twenty mile Creek, and remained on picket duty throughout the day.(49)

2-June 6-Relieved from outpost duty at 4 p.m.(49)

2-June 7-Broke camp and marched 8 miles in direction of Tupelo and camped.

2-June 8-Marched 5 miles and camped near R.R.., remaining there on the 9th.(49)

2-June 10-clear, hot & dusty- Left at daylight and reached Tupelo at 2 p.m., without halting , they marched four miles north and pitched tents on Town Creek.(49)

N-During this time, non-conscripts are discharged from service.

3-June 11-"Wether is warm all resting".(11)

2-June 12-clear & hot-Some of the men of the regiment were marched before the formation for unbecoming conduct in the fight on the 28th of May.(49)

2-June 13-July 21-regiment remains encamped on Town Creek.(50-53)

4-"One day I was sitting out under a shade tree near Col. Savage's quarters listening to him and Col. Donnel talk & I saw Col. Savage put his hand to his face & took something from it looked at it and said 'Col. Donnel here is a damn louse' If that is the only one he got at Tupelo he fell far short of his portion for they seemed to grow in the sand."(#11)

4-"Uncle Sam McCorkle and Fate Hayes cheered us with fiddle and accordion."(#11)

4-"It was almost impossible to get rid of the lice, because some soldiers were too lazy & trifling to scald their clothes or even scratch where the lice bit."

2-June 15-The companies are re-lettered.(50)

3-That same day, "H. R. Bess died to day. I went to dig his grave".(11)

3-June 16-"I have at this time one shirt, one pair of pants, one coat, no blanket. You see I don't have much trouble in caring my clothing".(11)

3-June 17 thru June 23-The regiment participates in company and battalion drill and dress parades.(11)

2-June 24-26-Co. E and three others are sent to Bear Creek for Picket.(50)

2-June 27-Knapsacks are drawn for the companies and distributed.(51)

3-Today, Etter and his comrads construct a "great shed" for shade and shelter.(11)

3-June 29-An unidentified "old man" from McMinnville visited camps and reported that "the Yankees" were camped there in route to Chattanooga, and they, "... was taking men, property and many deppredations upon our rights".(11)

2-June 30-General review of the Army.(51)

3-"All of our brigade went out to be reviewed by Mager General Poke and by Brigadier Donelson. It was so hot we almost melted. We was inspected guns, canteens, knapsacks, clothing and all some of us had was what we had on".(11)

2-July 1-Bragg reads address announcing his appointment as Commander of the Army of Mississippi.(51)

2-July 6-Mr. Cullom is recommended as Chaplain for Regt.(52)

3-July 6 thru July 8-At least a few companies are again ordered to picket duty at Bear Creek until relieved by Col. Chester.(11)

3-July 10-"Cloudy this morning and has rained some. Our regment was inspected".(12)

3-July 11-"There was a man preached in our reg. to night. His name was Lane. He was a plane man allso a solger. His surment was very good".(12)

3-July 14-The men spend the day policing their camp to improve hygiene.(12)

3-July 15-Following a dress parade in the evening, the regiment is read orders concerning the Conscript Laws.(12)

3-July 16-"The men was sworn to day to give a statement of their age. 13 in this company loosed".(12)

3-July 17-"It has rained a good rain after a drouth of near two months save a few tite sprinkles. Also the wether has been very hot. Mr. H. L. Hayes has taken command of us as secon Lieu. harve Buling died last night. He was orderly Sergent in Cap. Vance Company".(12)

3-July 18-"I went to gard a cornfield to keep the boys from stealing the corn. There was some wimen come along and give me some apples. One of them had with her a little babe".(12)

3-July 20-"Perry and Brown put on extra duty for not answering to their name".(12)

2-July 21-Clothing is drawn for the regiment.(53)

3-The men are ordered to cook three days rations and be ready to move.(12)

2-July 22- Tue.-clear & hot-At sun-up the regt. marched to Tupelo and boarded a train, leaving at 9 a.m. for Mobile. The 8th Tenn. left on a 1 p.m. train for the same place.(53)

3-"At two am. all up we drawed a few cloth 6 pair of pants to the company a few shoes a few drawers. I got one pair of pants. needed a shirt very much but they was none for me. At daylight loaded bagage and left for the depot. marched 4 miles and taken the cars at Tupelo. Left at 9 A.M. today. we crost the Missisipi valley. It was in all its lovelyness the fields was beautiful covered with corn in ful rosting ears. In the evening the car made a halt near a peach orchard. Its fruit was tempting. I could not bare the temtation. I mounted the fence and filling my hat returned to the car. Capt. Parks was arrested and most of companys. Stopt at station 219 miles from Mobile".(12)

3-July 23-"... We arrived at Mobile 9 P.M. marched off got abord of a boat. Lay down and slep the remainder of the night. I rested myself upon the bow of the boat".(12)

17-"Got off the cars & marched to the landing. Here we got on aboard on the Boat. (Her name was "Virginia".) & soon in the morning we started for Montgomery, (Ala.), Distant being 500 miles. The water was very shallow & the Boat run agrown, so we traveled very slow."(46)

2-July 24-The left wing of the reigment was still in Mobile, and at 2 p.m. took the steamer Dawrence up river to Montgomery Depot, and upon arriving boarded trains for Montgomery.(53)

3-I woke up this morning somewhat rested. The boat is fixing to git off tho she cant carry us to Montgomery. We git abord of another left Mo. at 2 Pm. came across the bya 25 miles to the Rale Rode got abord of the cars come through the corner of Florida. ... We traveled in open boxes was much crowded. I could not sleep and had a good opportunity of seeing the country as I passed along. We changed engines at Pollerd after leaving this we got down a mountain and dont think I ever saw a car run as fast. I think she run at the rate of sixty miles and hour. I was frightful to see the wheels jump. I felt uneasy the most of the rest of the boys knew nothing about it as they was sound asleep".(12)

2-July 25-Arrive Montgomery 9 a.m., depart for Atlanta at 3 p.m., reached West Pt. at 10 p.m., leaving at 11 p.m..(54)

2-July 26- Arrive in Atlanta at 5 a.m..(54)

3-" ... left there at 2 P.M. Great rejoyesing on the way. The ladies was on all sides of the road chering us and gave us aples and many other things".(12)

3-July 27-The regiment arrived in Chattanooga around four A.M., and marched to a bivouac site on "Chattanooga Creek".(13)

7-An order is issued for the regiment to supply volunteers to increase the number of men in Carnes’ Battery, and a large number of men of the Sixteenth respond to the order. They march to Carnes’ encampment located, "… about two hundred yards west of the Read House, then called the Crutchfield House, on ground well chaded with forest-trees…"(811)

3-July 28 thru Aug 3-The men are visited by friends and relatives from home. Many good meals and desserts are prepared for and consumed by the men in camp.(13)

3-Aug 4-The regiment learns that the enemy has occupied McMinnville. The troops commence drill on a regular basis again.(13)

3-Aug 5-The regiment moves its campsite about one and one half miles further from the city.(13)

2-Aug 6-Regt. encamps about four miles SE of Chattanooga.(55)

2-Aug 7-Womack is temporarily relieved of command for being AWOL for 3 days more that his leave was granted. Womack has hard feelings and expressed them in an appeal to BGen. Donelson.(55)

3-The men clear off a new parade ground near their encampment.(13)

12-Gen. Bragg’s reorganization of the army placed the 16th in the 1st brigade of Cheatham’s division, Polk’s Corps with Brig. Gen. D. S. Donelson commanding the 8th Tenn., Col. W. L. Moore; 15th Tenn., Col. R. C. Tyler; 16th Tenn., Col. J. H. Savage; 38th Tenn., Col. J. C. Carter; 51st Tenn., Col. John Chester; Carnes Battery, W. W. Carnes.(119)

3-Aug 8-A dress parade is conducted in the evening.(13)

3-Aug 9 thru Aug 13-The men continued to drill and collect fruit and news from the countryside. On the eleventh, they received news from several of Capt. Brewster's men that the Federals were in large numbers laying waste to the country around McMinnville.(13)

2-Aug 13-Womack fills out payrolls for March and April, but left out the columns for Bounty and Commutation.(56)

2-Aug 14-Thur-very warm-The regiment is re-outfitted with brand new Enfield rifles.(56)

3-"We turn in our old gunes that we have had ever sence we have been in the servis. We get in place of them endfield Rifels. that had never been used any. The boys are proud of them".(13)

3-Dress parade is conducted.(13)

2-Aug 16-The regt. struck tents and marched at 8 a.m. through Chattanooga and crossed the Tenn. at 2 p.m., marching 3 miles down the McMinnville or Anderson Rd. pitching tents along "a little branch".(56)

3-Regarding the preparations for the march, Etter commented that: "No trunks aloud to be hauld and onley one wagon to the onehundred men. We have to leve some of our blankets".(14)

2-Aug 17-Womack resumes command of his company. The regiment remained in position.(56)

3-Bad news reached Etter. "News came to me all that I had was destroded by the yankes. We expect to find the country lade wast".(14)

3-Aug 18-"Some young men brought in as prisoners. They was caught trying to shoot our picket. Orders to cook and be ready to move at daylight".(14)

3-Aug 19-The men were awakened at three a.m. and drew some pants, shoes and drawers, "no shirts". Shortly thereafter they marched down Harrison Road.(14)

2-The brigade marched 12 miles to Dallas and camped in the woods.(56)

3-One mile from Harrsion Ferry.(14)

3-Aug 20-One of the men of the regiment was shot on the march by a union man. A detail was sent after the culprit, but returned empty handed.(14)

2-Aug 21-Regt. Courtmartial for a K Co. man found guilty and sentenced to 15 days fatigue duty and forfieture of one months pay.(57)

2-Aug 22-Marched at 7 a.m. for 8 miles and camped at Blue Springs (at Wallace Chapel).(57)

3-They marched on the Washington Road.(14)

3-Aug 23-Orders were read that required two men from each company to be placed in the artillery. "15 men went out of our regment".(14)

3-Aug 24-"There was a man preached in the regment by the name of Cross. He preached very well tho his coat was most to fine to suit us".(14)

3-Aug 25 thru 27-The men continued drill and picket duty. Etter noted on the 25th: "I stade in camps to bake a pie out of some apples that we bout. everything we git is high this is a union settlement. It is the place where Colonel Clift made up his union Battalion. Some wimen came in camps to day to hunt connection, though they looked as if they did not care who they found".(14)

3-"Samuel McCorkle is missing we think him gone home. Savage ses he will shoot him if he gits him".(15)

2-Aug 28-Struck tents and left at 5 a.m. marching up Washington Rd. 10 miles and camped.(57)

2-Aug 29-Drilled.(57)

2-Aug 30-clear & hot-Marched 8 miles.(57)

2-Aug 31-cloudy & hot-Marched at 3 a.m. crossing Walling's Ridge to Jas. Robinson's and camped after 16 miles.(58)

18-"In crossing the Cumberland mountains we had orders to fill our canteens with water as we could not get any until we got over on the other side. We marched over in the night and never saw a drop of water until we landed near Sparta, all tired and completely exhausted."(Apr. 5)

3-"Off on the march we take the mountain at daylight. It was very steep my knapsack is heavy and three days ration made me swet very much. ... we almost perist for water. We came over the mountain without water. ... encamped at Young James Roberts 4 miles below Pikeville".(15)

2-Sept 1-The regt. left early in the morning and marched to Pikeville, rested through the day, and resumed the march at 6 p.m. in the direction of Sparta.(58)

3-Regarding Pikeville, Etter stated: "... the valley is a dark spot of the world the people are mostly union men".(15)

2-Sept 2-After marching all night, they came down the mountain at Biga Crane's early in the morning and camped at Cane Creek.(58)

3-"Left Pikeville one hour by sun it being very hot our lods being hevy I was very wet with swet when I got at the top of the mountian traveld all night many of the men fell out not being able to keep up with us I never was much more worn out in my life. After moon down it was so dark that I could not see the road we was halted at the top of the mountain and wated untill marched down ... the day and nights march has been 30 miles".(15)

2-Sept 3-Marched at 8 a.m. and reached Sparta by 2 p.m. and camped 2 miles out on the Gainsboro Rd.(58)

18-Remaining in camp from the 3rd through the 5th, some of the men chose to search for ‘good old Tennessee applejack’. "… a comrade named Smartt and I started out to see if we could find just a bit of it. We would inquire of the natives and went to several distilleries and finally after going about eight miles we found it. We had two Yankee canteens apiece and had them filled and you never saw two happier fellows than we were when we started back to camp. We met some of Bragg’s escort and the captain of the squad asked us if we had any liquor, and Smartt, fool-like, said we had some of the best apple brandy he ever saw, and right there is where Smartt made the mistake of his life for the Captain said, ‘Well, boys, you’ll have to pour it out.’ That remark nearly broke my heart for I knew the jig was up, so we commenced to empty our canteens. As I emptied mine I stepped back through the soldiers, spilling the contents of one of mine on the ground. The other was under my coat and I saved that from devastation. Smartt got rid of all that he had. The captain then said if we would go back with him where we got it we should have our money back, so Smartt went back with them and I stayed where we emptied our canteens. One of the cavalrymen asked me if I did not have some left. I told him to hush for if the captain should find it out it would be Katy with me so he went with the rest of the crowd. When Smart got back we put ourselves in shape not to pour any of the rest on the ground and when we got back to camp about sundown Smartt was cutting up so the Colonel was about to put him under guard but he did not and neither of us was punished for our trip."(Apr. 5)

2-Sept 5- Many friends and relatives visit the men.(58)

4-Jim Martin, George & Nash McBride enlisted with the 16th on the march north.(#12)

2-Sept 6-clear & hot-Marched at 7 a.m. in direction of Gainsboro for 17 miles.(58)

18-"… passing through the country where several companies of our regiment were raised… we could see women and children on the roads to greet their loved ones as we marched along."(Apr. 12)

3-The regiment encamped on Knee Branch.(15)

2-Sept 7-Marched at 5 a.m. reaching Gainsboro at 3 p.m. then west 2 miles and camped on the south side of Cumberland River.(58)

17-"… here we come to Comberland River, camp all night, went up the River four miles to cross. We pulled off our shoes, Rolled up our pants, then crossed."(47)

18-"A lot of us went down to the river to go in bathing, and I remember a circumstance that occurred while we were in the river. Some of our teamsters came down to water their mules and one of our boys asked permission of one of the teamsters to lead one of the mules into the water. There were several in the water at the time and the mule soon got into deep water and if there ever was a circus that mule certainly made one. It was but a little while till everybody was out on the bank and the soldier and the mule had the whole river to themselves. The soldier finally got away from the mule and we thought sure the animal would drown. Sometimes his head would come to the surface, then the other end would show up, then his feet were up, then he would disappear altogether but he finally quit his capers, stuck his nose out of the water, circled around a little and came ashore."(Apr. 12)

4-Sept 8-Marched up Jenning's Creek toward Thompkinsville.(#12)

3-They commenced the march at 10 a.m. and encamped at 6 p.m..(15)

2-Sept 9-Regt. is camped one mile south of Thompkinsville, KY.(59)

3-The days march was approximately 23 miles.(15)

3-Sept 11-Drawing only half rations, the men continued their march at 10 a.m. and encamped 12 miles from Thompkinsville.(16)

3-Sept 12-They commenced the march at 4 a.m., marching to Glassgow, 13 miles.(16)

17-"… here we stayed two days & nights."(47)

3-Sept 14-The regiment moves one mile and encamps.(16)

3-Sept 15-They marched, at noon, up the road towards Mumfordville.(16)

3-Sept 16-They marched at daylight until 10 p.m., taking up positions near the town.(16)

17-"The night of the 16th as we was flanking of the Yankees, about ten o-clock Capt. W. E. Low, A. A. Gen. Was shot ded by the rear guard of Gen. Gardner’s Brig. This rather alarmed us, as we was in an Enemies land, though we march onward. We went through Monfordsville & formed a line of battle."(47)

4-During a stampede late at night, Capt. Lowe of General Donelson's staff, was killed by pickets.(#13)

18-"Everyone was asleep, I suppose, and such running and scrambling I never saw. I remember that I was so scared that I left my gun lying in the road and everybody seemed to be hunting a tree to get behind. I think a Yankee corporal’s guard could have captured the whole outfit. I understood at the time that the panic ran through the whole army."(Apr. 12)

5-Sept 17-Polk's Corps marched in rear of the Federals at Munfordville and forced their surrender.(8)

5-They marched on to Bacon Creek the next day.(8)

17"… got near there & were ordered back to the Fort."(47)

17-Sept 18-"… we went to Bacon Creek."(47)

17-Sept 19-20-"… was ordered back to Monfordsville. We remained all night here & the next day until two o clock in the eve. Then we took up line of march, taken the Louisville Pike, travel on that eve & night about 22 miles."(47)

17-Sept 21-"Soon in the morn, we turned to the East & went to Hodgsville about 12 miles. Stayed that night."(47)

17-Sept 22-"Next morning we went to New Haven 10 miles & on near Bards-Town, 14 miles; here we stayed all night …"(47)

17-Sept 23-Oct 4-"… & day until Eve, Then we marched through Bards Town, & five miles down the Springfield Pike. Here we taken up camp until the 4th day of Oct."(47)

17-Oct 4-"On this day in the evening we were ordered to march. We left & went 5 miles to Fredric Burg…"(47)

17-Oct 5-"… left soon in the morn, went through Springfield. Here we taken the Perryville Pike 27 miles to the town."(47)

17-Oct 6-"We went through on Sunday & taken the Danville Pike 10 miles to town. Here we taken Harrods Burg Pike 10 miles to Harrods Burg. Here we had taken Camp."(47)

2-Oct 7-Regt. was at Harrodsburg, and marched at 5 p.m. and arrived at Perryville at midnight, east and in rear of that place in line of battle, and slept on their arms till near daylight.(61-62)

11-"…about 5 o’clock P.M. we receive orders to move, leaving the baggage train behind, taking only the ammunition and ambulance trains - the order was significant, and readily understood. … Accordingly at 7 o’clock the movement begins. The night was beautiful - the moon with full beams shinning from an unclouded vault, revealed the close column and its unfaultering tread, as it rapidly moved to the scene of the morrow’s action. About midnight we reached the little town of Perryville… The line of battle was formed that night,…"(73)

17-Oct 8-"We lay on our guns until 11 o clock the next day."(47)

2-Oct 8-"The enemy began cannonading at sunrise and continued slowly till about nine o'clock in the morning, occasionally answered by our batteries, when the enemy drove in our skirmishers and some pretty brisk firing was heard along our front lines".(62)

6/1-"Cheatham's Division was on the left, in the timber, until afternoon. Up to that time there had been some skirmishing only on the right, over the possession of a small creek".(141)

16-"From early in the morning until twelve o’clock the Sixteenth Regiment was in line of battle in the dry bed of Chaplain Creek, its right resting on the road that leads to Harrodsburg. The regiment was then ordered to march down Chaplain Creek."(119)

7-Carnes’ Battery: "The column had passed quite through the little town, and about 10 o’clock in the morning had to return-at least Polk’s corps-to the east side on the Harrodsburg road and about half a mile from Perryville. Gen. Donelson ordered the fence to be thrown down on the right side of the road as the traveler proceeds from Harrodsburg to Perryville, and the column to enter the field."(812)

2-"Our division (Cheatham's) changed position from where we first formed in rear of Perryville to our extreme right and took a position in the front line about this time."(62)

16-"After going a mile or more the cannon balls began to fall among the men but did no harm."(119)

7-Carnes’ Battery: "The position to be occupied was approached over very rough ground, which rose to a considerable height about a mile from the entrance into the field, and on this elevation was in line of battle. Carnes’ Battery was placed in line on the crest of the ridge, and began the battle by a very rapid fire on the enemy’s front, which was in plain sight about eight hundred yards off. All the artillery on both sides seemed to open fire presently … In this position the guns of the battery were each fired four times a minute for about forty-five minutes. Three horses were killed, but no casualties occurred among the men."(812)

2-"About twelve o'clock the batteries of our division were put in position and brought to bear on one of the enemy's now opened just in our front. The duel between these two lasted about two hours, and was said to be the briskest of the day. Here one of our Brigadiers, whose name I do not remember, was wounded in the head by one of the enemy's shells. About this time the battery of our brigade (General Donaldson's) commanded by Capt. Carns, moved from its present position further to the right, immediately after which, the whole Division moved in double quick, forward, near one mile across some fields, and again halted and formed".(62)

7-Carnes’ Battery: "Orders were received to cease firing and withdraw the battery, in order to take a more advantageous position. Time was even given to feed the horses under slight cover in a neighboring depression of ground. Gen. Bragg flitted along the line, well satisfied with the bearing of the men. About two o’clock in the evening orders were given, at the solicitation of the Captain, to take another position a mile and a half to the right of the first. The movement began at once, and so steep was the ground just before reaching the intended spot-which was a ridge, and this, too, encumbered with a high fence running longitudinally along its top-that the infantry, at the order of Gen. Polk, who always appeared at critical moments, had to actually push the gun-carriages against the horses, and even to help the horses themselves up.

6/1-"About one or two o'clock, Donelson's Brigade was ordered to the right at double-quick, and about this time the artillery opened up. After going some distance, we were halted in rear of the batteries. Some of the boys began to crack walnuts while the shells and long-range Minies were dropping around us and whistling overhead."(141)

2-"Here our division remained till about noon, all of which time considerable cannonading was going on along most of the line."(62)

2-"Here we remained but a short time, stopping only long enough to pile away all the extra weight about us, such as blankets, knapsacks etc."(62)

2-"Again we moved forward across a narrow wood through which ran a small creek,…"(62)

16-"At the distance of about two miles the creek widened to something like a small bottom, with water in it, the banks having become forty or fifty feet high, covered by heavy timber and undergrowth."(119)

18-"I remember we went into the battle close to a small creek."(Apr. 12)

16-"Turning to the left the Sixteenth was ordered by General Donelson to ascend the bluff, through the timber and undergrowth, which was steep and difficult to get up."(119)

5-"...we had to climb a hill which was difficult to ascend."(9)

16-"The path led along the foot of the bluff some fifty or sixty yards to a dug road, up which I rode into an open field and saw a battery of artillery some two hundred yards out in the field."(120)

5-"We went up an old road, and the 15th Tennessee reached the top about the time we did."(9)

16-"Riding to where the men were getting up the hill into the edge of the field, I formed the regiment into line on the edge of the bluff directly fronting the battery."(120)

2-"… and quietly [we] formed in line of battle behind the top of the hill, lying, till the whole line would have time to cross over and form".(62)

2-"We now occupied ground about three hundred yards from where the enemy lay concealed in an enclosed wood, about one quarter of a mile in length north and south. At each extremity of this wood they had placed a battery. The one at the northern extremity, of 7 guns, that at the southern about the same."(62)

16-"By this time General Donelson rode up and said, "Colonel, I am ordered to attack," to which I made no reply. He repeated a second time, "Colonel, I am ordered to attack." I again made no reply. He repeated a third time, "Colonel, I am ordered to attack the enemy!" I then said: "General, I see no enemy to attack except that battery over there in the field. Do you mean, sir, that you want the Sixteenth to charge that battery?" He said, "Yes." I replied, "General, I will obey your orders but if the Sixteenth is to charge that battery you must give the order." He raised his voice in a rather excited tone and said, "Charge."

I believed that the battery was supported by a strong line of infantry concealed by a fence, and a forest not more than eighty yards in its rear, and that it had been placed in the field as a decoy to invite a charge. I believed that a charge would end in my death and the defeat and ruin of my regiment, and while I had often disobeyed Donelson’s orders, for which he had court-martialed me, I could think of no military principles that would authorize me to disobey such an order in the face of the enemy and at the beginning of such a battle.

"There was running up from Chaplain Creek a long hollow about half way between the battery and where the regiment was in line. I thought as soon as I moved into that hollow I would be out of reach of the battery and that I could come up on the other side within sixty or seventy yards of the battery. I was in no hurry; got in front of my regiment and said, "Forward, march!"(120)

5-"We were ordered forward, which was obeyed with a loud "Hurrah!""(9)

16-"About the time the regiment reached the bottom of the hollow an aide of General Cheatham’s came from the woods near the right, saying that the enemy that General Cheatham wanted attacked was in the woods at the head of the hollow at the right. I halted the regiment, ordered my color bearers to the front and ordered the regiment to dress on them so as to march in the new direction indicated by Cheatham’s order."(120)

16-J. C. Biles stated: "… the regiment moved as if to charge the battery and was halted after moving a short distance, and was formed in line of battle at right angles to the line when marching to charge the battery in the field."(126)

16-"I was in no hurry, for outside of Cheatham’s aide and Donelson there was no Confederate in sight. There was no reason why the battery should not have fired upon the regiment while it was in line, except that a fire would pass through the line and only do a little damage. Marching in the new direction indicated by Cheatham’s aide, I was soon in an open beech forest on the top of the hill."(120)

18-"We had just got to the top of a small hill when we saw the enemy rise to their feet and then business began, and things were hot for a time."(Apr. 12)

4-"The whole line of battle was expected to keep in line on the forward movement, but some of the boys seemingly anxious to close in on the enemy raised the yell & rushed forward which caused our regiment to get far in advance of our main line..."(#14)

2-"Donaldson's brigade either executed orders too promptly, or else other commands not hastily enough, in consequence of which this brigade, and the 16th regiment especially, was exposed to a most terrific fire from both the above batteries and at the same time an opening line of infantry. Here at the onset we suffered very much both in officers and men".(63)

16-"I was riding in front expecting a surprise, the left of the regiment was at the edge of the forest and the field, when the battery, about one hundred and fifty yards from the regiment, fired, enfilading it, sweeping the whole length of the line, killing a Captain, a lieutenant and many privates."(121)

16-Jesse Walling related: "We charged in right oblique course and were met by the grape and canister shot from these guns, which killed many of our men."(127)

6/1-"Soon we advanced through a field where the grapeshot and shrapnel were rattling against the cornstalks, which had been cut and shocked up, also thinning our ranks".(141)

16-"I was riding in front of the regiment; a grape shot passed through the head of my horse below the eyes. Remembering to have seen thirty or forty riderless horses running over the battlefield at Molino del Rey, I threw the bridle of my horse over a snag, took a Remington pistol from the holsters, and ordered the regiment forward to get out of range of the battery. Descending the hill some forty or fifty yards, we were fired on by the main line of the Yankee army, not more than fifty or sixty yards distant, concealed behind a rail fence which was a prolongation of the fence enclosing the field in which the battery was situated."(121)

16-Walling continued: "All at once the enemy raised up from behind a rail fence, pouring a deadly fire into us and killing great numbers of our men. We fell back a short distance …"(127)

2-"...we were compelled, after the most stubborn resistance possibly to be made, to fall back, not without however, having first dislodged the enemy from his stronghold and chosen ground."(63)

11-"At one o’clock the rattle of small arms was terrific and unceasing - a thrilling accompaniment to the deep bass of the thundering artillery as it filled earth, air and heaven with its startling reverberations."(75)

2-"The Regt. to which I belonged (Col. Savage's) was on the extreme right of Cheatham's division, which now made the extreme right of Gen. Bragg's army, and was directly in front of the seven-gun battery before spoke of".(62-3)

2-""Victory" for our motto was shouted all along our line, and fearlessly and gallantly we charged them."(62)

5-"We were perhaps two hundred yards from the enemy when we were ordered to open fire, which we did with effect on the enemy, judging from the piles of dead which were before us after firing a few rounds."(9)

6/3-"In the midst of the charge, while our men were giving the old rebel yell to perfection, this man Hughes received a wound which broke out all of his lower teeth. When taken from the field it was found that he had been hit in the mouth by two bullets at a cross-fire. They had met in his mouth and each ranged with the teeth of the lower jaw, lodging one on each side of his neck. His face was not marked on the outside." (The man referred to was Corporal H. I. Hughes, Co. F)

2-"The men from drought and fatigue were almost exhausted at the opening, but they made the charge & received the fire of the enemy, although the first battle in which most of them had ever engaged, in a manner worthy to the cause in which they were engaged." (63)

5-"I ran forward to a little stump six or eight inched through and about two feet high and rested my gun on the top and took deliberate aim. Before I could fire, some of our men shot a ball into the stump, which barely missed me."(9)

16-"There was a fence and a field on my right running up to two cabins at the line of the enemy’s forces. There were skirmish lines along this fence which fired on our rear as we advanced. The Sixteenth had no protection except a few trees in the forest. I ordered a charge."(121)

16-Walling: "… [we] rallied and charged again, meeting the same deadly fire which drove us back again for the second time."(127)

2-"With our numbers now much weakened we rallied and charged them a second time, with about the same success as at first."(63)

5-"About this time we were ordered to charge, and we went forward with a rush. The enemy fell back and we crossed the fence they were behind, amid hundreds of their slain."(9)

18-"There was a battery on our left that was giving us grape and canister and the bullets were singing around us. A man was standing just in front of me while I was loading my gun and I happened to have my eyes on him just as a canister struck him in the breast and I saw the white flesh before it bled. He was a dead man."(Apr. 12)

4-"I had no hope of getting out alive. Such trials as that has a tendency to temporarily derange the minds of some, at least it was the case with me."(#14)

5-"Just at this time Colonel Savage got wounded."(9)

4-"Col. Savage was with us in the thickest of the fight and was shot through his leg, & his horse (George) was killed.(#15)

5-"Colonel Donelson appeared on the right where I was and a flanking party had started around us on our right with their guns at right shoulder shift."(9)

16-"We drove the enemy from behind the fences, killing many of them as the fled. The right of the regiment was at the two cabins. There was a battery in the line of battle to the right, about thirty or forty yards from these cabins, between which cabins there was an entry, or space, of ten or fifteen feet. The battery opened fire on us, killing many men, and at the same time a fire of small arms from the line of battle was directed upon these cabins. The battery fired obliquely into this space. I stood between the cabins, would watch the gunner ram home the charge, and say, "Lie low, boys; he is going to fire," and step for protection close to the cabin nearest the battery. "(122)

4-"We were in 40 yards of the enemy & they were falling fast. I hurriedly glanced to the right & left to see if the main line was engaged."(#14)

16-"During the hottest of the battle my lieutenant-colonel, Donnel, came to me and said: "Colonel, order a retreat. We are losing all our men and are not supported." I relied: "Protect your men by those trees and that fence and I will protect this wing by these cabins. We were ordered to fight. To order a retreat at the beginning of a battle is not war. We must hold this position until supported, and it is the duty of our commanding officers to bring us support."(123)

16-Walling: "I was in the center of the regiment (Sixteenth Tennessee), and noticed that we were not supported either to the right or to the left."(127)

5-"There was a battery just to our right side. When the flanking party was driven back, I thought it should be silenced or captured. There were two little log cabins just behind the enemy line that we had captured and a fence running about north and south. I jumped over this little fence and started toward the battery. I came to a small shade tree and rested my gun against it. I commenced firing at the cannoneers. A ball from down the fence tore through my hat and hair. About this time Alvin Simpson, one of our company, came and rested his gun against the six or seven inch tree and fired. A ball from the same direction that had clipped so close to me, split his hat on the side about four inches."(10)

16-"The battle was furious, the men loading and firing as rapidly as possible, falling back and again charging up to the fence. A private, Andrew Dow Mercer, said, "Boys, let’s take the battery," and started in that direction. At this time I saw a force to my right and in my rear. I countermanded Mercer’s order, but he had gone some five or six steps towards the battery to a tree. Seeing that he was not supported, he hugged the tree closely for a short space of time and returned to the cabin without being wounded. While standing between the cabins a minie ball passed through my leg without breaking the bone, and the wood off a canister shot struck the opposite cabin, and glancing knocked me down, paralyzing me for a time. The men at the battery had been killed or wounded or had fled before Maney’s Brigade appeared in the field to my right, some hundred yards or more distant, and the battle had ceased at the battery."(122)

2-"Again we were compelled to fall back and again formed and charged for a third time, but our forces were so diminished by this time that I am not at all sure we would have been able to drive them from their guns had it not been for the timely arrival of reenforcements on our right."(63)

5-"When the flanking party was driven back, it opened the way for our artillery, which was put in use with vigor. And the enemy finally yielded this line and fell back a few hundred yards to a lane."(10)

4-"Gen'l Maney's Brigade came to our rescue on our right & saved the remainder of our regiment from being killed & captured."(#14)

5-"Just at this critical moment, Maney's Brigade appeared upon the scene. With a yell they charged and drove back the flanking party."(9)

2-"...they [Maney] appeared in time to gain the day, although they scarcely fired a gun themselves. But their appearance on the field struck terror to the already retreating enemy, who fell back about three hundred yards, on their second line, but the resistance they made was very slight compared with that of their first."(63)

4-"The enemy finally retreated & we followed on. They loaded as they fell back but would whirl & shoot back. As we passed the little cabin on the hill I was severely wounded through my right side above my hip."(#15)

16-Walling: "The third time we went over the fence, driving the enemy before us, capturing the cannon. We continued running them, killing them as they ran. Their dead and wounded lay thick behind the fence and over the field."(127)

16-"I said to Colonel Donelson: "I am unfit for duty. Take charge. Go to the battery. It belongs to the Sixteenth."(122)

16-Walling: "The Sixteenth was engaged with the enemy for at least thirty minutes when General Maney’s men appeared to our right as we were running the enemy across the field."(127)

2-The Federals withdrew leaving dead and wounded as well as the battery of guns in their hands.(63)

16-"Soon after the time that Maney’s brigade appeared on the right the Thirty-eighth Regiment belonging to Donelson’s brigade engaged the enemy’s line of battle on the left."(123)

6/1-"Going through this field, the 38th got somewhat mixed with the 16th, Col. John H. Savage's regiment, ... he called bayonets "bagonets" when ordering his men to use them on the charge. After passing this field, we struck a rock fence diagonally, each pushing off a few rocks to make climbing easier".(142)

11-"…at two o’clock I passed an overhanging bluff near a stream which had been selected as the temporary hospital and here were seen the first bitter fruits of this unnatural fratricidal strife. Here they were borne from the field on litters, in waggons & carts, and upon the arms of their friends, and here was administered such relief as the poor skill of men can apply to suffering humanity…"(76)

2-"Soon after this, about five o'clock in the evening, the sixteenth regiment, together with the other regiments of the first Tennessee brigade were withdrawn and held in reserve for half an hour, when about sunset they were marched in again; but night coming on they were ordered to pursue no farther."(63)

11-"I watched with a confidence assured but with an intensity of anxiety which I never expect to experience again. The advancing column as they passed upon the wood within which the enemy stood sheltered, and from which they were pouring volley after volley upon our uncovered lines for three long hours, or until night closed the scene the conflict raged."(77)

13-General Polk later remarked on the conduct of Stewart, Maney and Donelson’s brigades stating: "This charge of these three brigades was one of the most heroic and brilliant movements of the war. Considering the disparity of the number of the troops engaged, the strength of the enemy’s position, the murderous character of the fire under which they had to advance, the steadiness with which they endured the havoc which was being made in their ranks, their knowledge that they were without any supporting force, the firmness with which they moved upon the enemy’s masses of infantry and artillery, it will compare favorably with the most brilliant achievements of historic valor."(248)

2-"Just fifty percent of my company (E) was wounded, but not a man killed upon the field; five or six had, notwithstanding, received mortal wounds."(63)

2-"We occupied the field all night, taking care of the wounded; the enemy as well as our own comrads. When the broadfaced moon began to shed her silvery beams on the faces of the dead and dying, the field presented a most horrible spectacle indeed; and the shrieks and groans of the wounded constantly pointed to where another brave and gallant fellow had sacrificed his all on the alter of liberty."(64)

11-"I returned about 9 o’clock to the principal hospital to witness a scene revolting to humanity - the house, yard, and every available space upon an acre of ground were covered with the wounded - The night was quiet, and the moon shone as calmly and as placidly down as if nature looked with approving smile upon the terrible drama which had just been enacted I soon found myself in the midst of the dead and dying, of every stage of suffering and death."(79)

4-John Haston died on Oct. 9th, Peter Shockley-killed, Levy Johnson-killed, William Jones died that night, James Moore-killed, Sam Parker-killed, John Steakly-killed and brother James Steakly died that night, George Sparkman was severely wounded and taking refuge behind a tree was killed by grapeshot, William Wood died that night, John E. York-killed, John Smaller who joined in route to Kentucky-killed.(#15)

4-"Lieut. Denny Cummings ... was shot in the mouth breaking his jaw and carrying away about 14 or 15 teeth...". They thought he would die, but later rejoined the company and fought at Chicamauga.(#15)

6/1-"... we got a lot of good, warm blankets and comfortable blue suits in this fight".(142)

12-Company C went into the fight with forty men in line, yet suffered twenty-eight casualties in the course of the afternoon.(520)

12-"Donelson’s Brigade sustained a loss of 347 killed and wounded; the Sixteenth under Colonel Savage losing 199, more than half the casualties of the brigade. … General Cheatham said of the gallant Savage that "in battle he had an instinctive knowledge of the point of difficulty and danger and went to it."(52)

12-"So conspicuous was the part of Cheatham’s brigades, that when General Bragg issued his general order authorizing the several commands engaged at the battle of Perryville to inscribe the name of that field on their colors, he said: ‘the corps of Cheatham’s division, which made the gallant and desperate charge resulting in the capture of three of the enemy’s batteries, will, in addition to the name, place the cross-cannon inverted.’"(52)

2-Oct. 9-Before dawn the army was marching for Harrodsburg, passing that place and halted late that night, camping in the vicinity of Camp Dick Robinson eight miles from there.(64)

16-Walling: "My company went into the fight numbering eighty-four men and next morning we only had sixteen men able for service."(127)

4-Wounded, that were capable of being moved, including Clark, were taken to the court house at Harrodsburg. Being too seriously wounded to make the retreat, Clark and many others were left behind to be cared for by the Federals.(#15)

2-Oct. 10-They continued on three more miles toward Bryantsville where they "spread a few flies and balnkets" and commenced cooking rations.(64)

2-Oct. 11-13-They regt. rested and recovered for two days, then commenced the march toward Cumberland Gap. They passed Camp Dick Robinson and Lancaster with the enemy harassing their rear all day.(65)

5-"It was said that Bragg's wagon train was forty miles long."(10)

2- Oct. 14-Marching all day, the men fell down to rest late at night, near Dick Nailer's, and slept until 3 a.m. on the 15th, when they commenced the march again.(65)

2-Oct. 15-Marched all day and camped on the north bank of the Rock-Castle River with heavy skirmishing in the rear.(65)

2-Oct. 16-cloudy and warm "The army moved off this morning at four o'clock and marched on until we passed two miles south of Wildcat Creek, Cheatham's Division being in the rear and the enemy pressing very closely, it was ordered back to said creek to remain till morning. By this time we had a combatant in our midst almost as troublesome as that in our rear. Our rations had given out, our haversacks were all empty and we had not yet overtaken our supply train. Hence there was considerable clamor for bread. Late at night we received a small ration of fresh beef which we toasted over our little brush fires, and considerably satiated our gnawing appetites with this saltless article without any bread at all."(65)

2-Oct 17-Marched at 5 a.m., passing through London by 11 a.m., and on six miles to a "little muddy creek" and halted to cook and eat after catching up with their trains. The march had been hard, the men had had nothing since their small ration of beef the night before.(65)

2-Oct 18-First frost-The regt. left at 11 a.m. and marched 18 miles to Barboursville, arriving at night.

"Here we reduced to the necessity of camping in an open field and of burning plank and rail fences to make fires, which we did without much mercy."(66)

2-Oct 19-At 7 a.m., the men marched along the Cumberland until reaching "Cumberland ford" where they crossed and encamped.(66)

7-Carnes’ Battery: "… bushwhackers stole around the woody hills and bluffs firing into the column till a general officer, without halting, ordered some picked cavalry-men to surround the nest of skulkers; and this order was so effectually obeyed that five of the wretches apologized by permitting themselves to be hanged near the road-side."(814)

18-"On this retreat I suffered more with hunger than I ever did during the war. I remember one day on that march myself and a comrade were sitting down by the road to rest when our Assistant Surgeon came riding by and I asked him if he could give a fellow a bite of something to eat. He reached down in his haversack and gave me a biscuit which I divided with my comrade, and I think to this day how good that biscuit tasted."(Apr. 12)

2-The main subsistence on the march had been quarter rations of bread and saltless beef.(66)

2-Oct 20-Marched 20 miles and camped two miles beyond Cumberland Gap.(66)

Womack noted the beauty of the area.

2-Oct 21-Marched 3 miles and camped on Powell River. The men continued to subsist on quarter rations.(67)

2-Oct 22-Made 20 mile march at dawn through Gazwell and along the Clinch River, crossed and camped.(67)

2-Oct 23-Marched 13 miles, passing through Maynardsville, on 3 miles and camping at the Owler Farm.(67)

2-Oct 24-Marched 13 miles, stopping about 5 short of Knoxville.(67)

2-Oct 25-28-The Division rested in camps on the outskirts of Knoxville. Here the men received sufficient amounts of food to satisfy their appetites. The first snowfall fell on the 26th (5 inches). Many of the men who were wounded at Perryville were sent on to the hospitals in Knoxville on the 27th, Lossen Keiff, John VanHooser and W. T. Moores were among those of Co. E. Finally on the 28th, details were sent home to gather winter clothing, "our friends being regarded as much more reliable source from whom we might draw than the general government, it being rather poorly supplied."(67-8)

2-Oct 29-The division marched for Knoxville at 2 p.m., and boarded trains for Chattanooga at 6 p.m..(68)

2-Oct 30-After traveling all night they arrived at Chattanooga around 11 a.m., layed over for 4 hours and boarded another train for Bridgeport, Al, arriving at 10 p.m. and camping.(68)

2-Oct 31-The bridge at Bridgeport was not complete, and the men had to carry baggage 400 yards to the ferry, and repeat the same on the far side. They then waited until 5 p.m. for a train, taking it for Tullahoma and arriving there at 10 p.m.. After arriving, they met up with the Regiment's recruiting officers and about 180 new recruits for the regiment.(68)

2-Nov 1-clear & cool-Early this morning the regiment "...moved out and pitched our tents, such as we had, near the Tullahoma grave yard, about one quarter of a mile west of town."(68) "Great anxiety began now to be expressed on the part of both officers and men in Donaldson's brigade to be allowed to visit their homes, the great majority of whom were near them, and had not been permitted to return since their enlistment in the service. This protracted absence, a thing the soldiers did not expect at the time of their enlistment, was ripening to a source of frequent desertions, and was very annoying indeed."(69)

2-Nov 2-21-The men remained in camp at Tullahoma.(69-71)

2-Furloughs for small groups, by company, commenced on the 5th of Nov. for 5 day increments. Womack wrote his wife a receipt on the 11th for having made "gray jeanes".(70)

18-"I was then within 14 miles of home and I visited home quite often. Our adjutant liked a drink of applejack quite well and as there was a still near my home I would get a pass frequently. I suppose our Colonel did not know anything about it, so I would run up home, visit the folks and lay in a jug of brandy."(Apr. 19)

18-Carden and his comrades continued their antics and drinking sprees while camped here. A pard named Charlie Lance eventually fell into a well they had dug while trying to assist another comrade being accosted by an officer.(Apr. 19)

2-Nov 22-Clear and cool-The division marched from camps at 10 a.m., and after crossing Little Duck River, camped at Manchester.(71)

2-Nov 23-Marched two miles north of Beech Grove and camped on Garretson's Fork.(72)

12-"The Sixteenth Tennessee, Col. John H. Savage; the Thirty-eighth, Col. John C. Carter; the Eighth, Col. W. L. Moore; the Fifty-first, Col. John Chester; the Eighty-fourth, Col. S. S. Stanton, and Carnes’ battery, constituted Donelson’s brigade."(58)

2-Nov 24-Marched at 8 a.m., arriving at Murfreesboro at 4 p.m. and continued a mile down the Nashville R.R. pitching tents on the "margin of a little creek."(72)

17-"Taken up camp one half mile on the Nashville Pike from town."(47)

2-Nov 26-The regt. struck tents and moved their camp across the R.R. and pitched near Nashville Pike being told they would remain there for the winter.(72)

5-"Our camp was visited daily by friends from home and many of the Tennessee soldiers were indebted to home folks for good clothing."(10)

2-Nov 27-Dec 4-The regiment stayed in camps, Womack attended field services led by Rev. Doctor Cross. Womack felt himself very affected by the sermon. The "Rebel Banner" was a local publication which circulated throughout the army at this place.(72-3)

2-Dec 5-Donelson's and Smith's brigades were ordered to make a raid towards Lavergne. As they fell in for the march a snow storm blew across the country and the men cheered and whooped as they set off for the march. They reached the town at dusk. "But the most delightful hour came with darkness of night, finding us halting in the woods without axes, the ground beautifully covered with snow and blankets by no means plentiful. Here we had a fine time raking and clawing away the snow, clearing up ground upon which to spread our blankets for the night." The 16th was pushed forward of the main command and, halting near a small field surrounded by a rail fence, the boys found themselves plenty warm with roaring fires that evening.(73)

2-Dec 6- At 10 a.m., the regt. marched on up the pike about 3 miles, but returned to camps of the night previous at dusk, the cavalry having gotten the honors of capturing federal stores.(73)

18-"… on passing a house about sixty rods from the pike we saw a bunch of our men down there, so myself and Mose Messick went down there to see what was going on. We saw a citizen selling apples to the boys out of a window. He was selling them for 50 cents a dozen. Meither Mose or myself had a cent and I thought it was no go for us, but Mose, after standing there for some time said: ‘Look here, ain’t you going to give me my change back at all?’ and the man said he didn’t know he owed him any change and Mose proved by me that he had given him $5 and he was tired of standing there so long. The man forked over $4.50 and we went out to the pike. Mose gave me a part of the money and I went back and bought what apples we wanted."(Apr. 19)

2-Dec 7- The regiment marched back to Murfreesboro arriving there after sunset.(73)

2-Dec 8-24-Weather remains cold-Dress Parade on the 9th and brigade drill on the 12th helped to consume much of the soldier’s time in preparation for the arrival of Jefferson Davis on the 13th. Womack recalled it as a, "truly imposing scene, and a time of rejoicing throughout the army and surrounding country, the Ladies, old men, children and negroes turning out enmass to see their esteemed president and the army"(75). On the 23rd, Col. Savage returned to duty after recovering from wounds received at Perryville, and Womack completed the addition of a brick chimney to his tent, "It drew finely, and made my tent as comfortable as a stove"(76).

2-Dec. 25-Warm & Cloudy-"May the coming Christmas in sixty three find our now distracted and unhappy country reposing in the lap of an infantile and glorious peace"(76).

2-Dec. 26-Warm & Rainy-The Federals moved from Nashville in force.(76)

2-Dec. 27-Cooler-Still Raining-Heavy skirmishing was heard as the Federals advanced to Stewart's Creek south of LaVergne. The army moved from camps to occupy positions north of Murfreesboro.(76-7)

15/3-"In obedience to orders, the tents were struck and the wagons packed and sent to the rear Sunday night, 27th ultimo."(710)

17-"… ordered to march out one mile in front & form a line of Battle, which we did and stayed under heavy connonading until Wednesday morning the 31st."(47)

2-Dec. 28-Cheatham's Division, excepting Maney who was out on the skirmish line, formed a line of battle and stacked arms as the reserve. Here, the men remained in camp all day.(77)

2-Dec. 29-Cold & Rainy-At dawn, the men moved across Stones River and took positions just west of the River with the division forming parallel to it. The men laid in line all day with the occasional whistling of a shell overhead from the federal batteries posted in the distance.(77)

15/3-"At daylight Monday morning the brigade was moved to and assumed its line of battle, which was second and supporting to the first line of battle, two companies of Colonel Savage’s regiment, extending across the railroad, and Colonel Carter’s, the left regiment, across the Wilkinson pike, its left resting on the right of General Stewart’s brigade. This line of battle, with Chalmers’ brigade in front, which mine was to support, was formed on the brow of a hill, about 300 yards in a southeast direction from the white house, known as Mrs. James’."(710)

2-Dec. 30-Rainy, Cold and Disagreeable-Very brisk skirmishing took place all day, although the Sixteenth remained in reserve until nightfall when Donelson's Brigade replaced Chalmers' on the skirmish line. Lt. Col. Donnell had to depart the field for the effects of a skin ailment on his face due to the cold weather; Capt. L.N. Savage, Col. Savage's brother assumed his position as second in command.(77-8)

15/3-At dark, Tuesday evening, "… in obedience to orders from Lieutenant General Polk, the brigade was moved forward to the front line, to relieve General Chalmers’ brigade, which had already held that position three days and nights. Before day the brigade returned to its proper position, and General Chalmers’ brigade resumed its place on the front line."(710)

12-"The Sixteenth Tennessee, Col. John H. Savage; the Thirty-eighth, Col. John C. Carter; the Eighth, Col. W. L. Moore; the Fifty-first, Col. John C. Chester; the Eighty-fourth, Col. S. S. Stanton, and Carnes’ battery, constituted Donelson’s Brigade."(58)

2-Dec. 31-Wed.-Cold & cloudy-The brigade returned from the skirmish line, at 4 a.m., and retired to the reserve position located on the hill west of the river.(78)

15/3-"During the night a general order from General Bragg was received directing a vigorous and persistent attack at daylight by our left wing on the right of the enemy… …directing me to conform the movements of my brigade to those of General Chalmers’ brigade, always keeping in close supporting distance-about 2,000 feet in rear-and to support it promptly when ordered."(710)

N-The Confederate assault commenced, as scheduled, early in the morning. The men in the Donelson's Brigade and the Sixteenth viewed the first waves of troops drive the enemy from their positions and force the entire Federal right to crumble; however, the ground fronting their position had failed to falter, and in fact, Chalmers' Brigade was repulsed with great loss. Shortly thereafter, Cheatham's Reserve (Donelson's Brigade) was thrust into the attack.

15/3-"…I moved my brigade, except Stanton’s regiment, forward at 10 o’clock Wednesday morning, December 31 (the right being the directing regiment and the railroad the line of direction), until it reached the front line, from which General Chalmers’ brigade had started, where it was halted until orders should be received to the support of General Chalmers."(710)

15/2-"About 10 o’clock General Donelson’s brigade was ordered forward to the support of Chalmers’ brigade, which had been partially driven back."(707)

2-"Our front line having now moved out in the center, to keep pace with the left which was swinging handsomely around, we, the center reserve, were ordered forward to occupy the ground by them so recently deserted."(78)

2-"Having gained this position we occupied it but a few minutes till we were ordered into the charge."(78)

15/3-"The brigade had occupied its position along the front line (behind Chalmers’ breastworks) only a few minutes, when, General Chalmers having received a severe wound, his brigade was broken and the greater part of it fell back in disorder and confusion. …I immediately advanced my brigade to its support and indeed, its relief, under a shower of shot and shell of almost every description. During this advance my horse was shot under me, from which, and another wound received at the Cowan house, he died during the day. In advancing upon and attacking the enemy under such a fire, my brigade found it impossible to preserve its alignment, because of the walls of the burnt house known as Cowan’s and the yard and garden fence and picketing left standing around and about it…"(711)

15/4-"…I was directed by General Donelson (through his aide, Captain [John] Bradford) to move along the railroad, but two companies to its right and eight on its left, taking the guide to the right. The advance was made under a heavy cannonade, and the line of battle and direction maintained, although serious obstructions impeded the march."(713)

16-"A cannon ball knocked down a soldier near Savage’s horse, which so frightened his horse that it made desperate efforts to throw him, which caused the regiment to halt to see the result. Unable to quiet the animal he dismounted and sent it to the rear and went on foot the balance of the battle."(139)

5-"We came to the Cowan house which had been burned, but the walls were still standing and also a lot of picket fence. It broke our alignment and part of our brigade went to the left and Savage's regiment went to the right through corn stalks and a cotton patch."(11)

15/2-"General Donelson pressed forward through the open field in front of the burnt house, under a terrific fire of twenty pieces of artillery and a heavy infantry force. Colonel Savage’s regiment and three companies of the Fifty-first Tennessee passed to the right of the house, extending to the river on the right…"(707)

19-Hardin S. Lane is killed in the advance by a "bombshell".

15/3-"…Savage’s regiment, with three companies of Chester’s regiment, went to the right of the Cowan house, and advanced upon the enemy until they were checked by three batteries of the enemy, with a heavy infantry support, on the hill to the right of the railroad,…"(711)

1-The three companies of the 51st that advanced with the 16th were companies A, D and F.(290)

2-"The enemy at the time we went into the engagement was driven back into a thick cedar grove, from which we calculated to drive them, but did not succeed."(78)

15/4-"The eight left companies advanced between the railroad and the turnpike in front of the Cowan house without the slightest protection, engaging a battery and the enemy’s infantry in the woods at a distance of less than 150 yards. The right companies advanced through a stalk-field to the edge of a cotton patch. Here the enemy opened a heavy fire at short range from a line extending to the right as far as I could see. This killed Captain Spurlock, who fell while leading his men in the most gallant manner."(717)

5-"We were heavily attacked by two batteries of artillery and a heavy line of infantry. We halted and went to firing."(11)

2-"Soon after our division entered the line of fire their reserve was brought up, when the contest became most severe."(78)

2-"At this time they advanced a few paces, emerging from the cedars and keeping up an incessant fire."(78

2-"The space between the two lines was now an unobstructed plain of about one hundred yards; we lying and shooting, they standing."(78)

15/4-"At this moment it seemed to me that I was without expected support on my left, and that the line had divided and gone off in that direction. My men shot the horses and gunners of the battery in front, but I could not advance without being outflanked and _______ [enfiladed] by the enemy on my right; I therefore ordered them to halt and fire. In a few moments my acting lieutenant-colonel (L.N. Savage) fell by my side, supposed mortally wounded, and my acting major (Captain Womack) had his arm badly broken."(717)

2-"While in this position, about twelve o'clock, my right arm was broken and I retired from the scene." Womack was taken to Soule College Hospital for treatment, along with hundreds of other wounded.(78)

15/2-"Colonel Savage, of the Sixteenth Tennessee, advanced beyond the burnt house (Cowan), and took position on the right of the railroad, and for three hours held the columns of infantry in his front in check…"(707)

15/3-Colonel Savage’s regiment, with three companies of Colonel Chester’s, held, in my judgement, the critical position of that part of the field. Unable to advance, and determined not to retire, having received a message from Lieutenant General Polk that I should in a short time be re-enforced and properly supported, I ordered Colonel Savage to hold his position at all hazards, and I felt it to be my duty to remain with that part of the brigade, holding so important and hazardous a position as that occupied by him."(712)

16-"Then a furious battle ensued between the Sixteenth and Hazen’s and Wagner’s brigades supporting these batteries, assisted by such help as other parts of the left wing were in condition to give. The enemy now retreated, but the Sixteenth did not pursue, for at this time a column was seen coming up the river about one hundred and fifty yards in the rear of the Sixteenth, coming from the Round Forest. When the two companies on the right were ordered to attack them and all the officers on the left being killed or disabled, Horace McGuire, the bugler, was sent across the railroad with orders to Private Hackett to bring those eight companies to the support of the two companies attacking the column coming up from Round Forest. These forces coming up the river were Van Cleave’s, who was wounded in the face, and turned the command over to Colonel Beatty."(140)

6/6-P. H. Cantrell was severely shocked by the explosion of a shell near by. After being carried to the rear and regaining his senses, he rejoined his command later in the afternoon.

5-"We were soon moved further to our right, as the enemy was extending his line in that direction. We were then formed into what might be called a skirmish line."(11)

15/3-"Colonel Savage, finding the line he had to defend entirely too long for the number of men under his command, and that there was danger of his being flanked, either to the right or left, as the one or the other wing presented the weaker front, finally threw out the greater part of his command as skirmishers, as well to deceive the enemy as to our strength in his rear as to protect his long line, and held his position, with characteristic and most commendable tenacity, for over three hours.

5-"We had now reached a skirt of open woods and I was firing from the side of a tree. Lieutenant R.B. Anderson of our company was next to the tree and holding my ramrod after I would load and until I would fire. A rifle ball struck him down."(11)

16-"In this contest, Lieutenant Anderson, of Captain Savage’s company, was killed, which left the regiment without a single commissioned officer."(140)

15/3-The support that had been promised Donelson finally arrived around 1 p.m.; however, the first of the brigades to arrive, Jackson’s, went to the west, or left of the Cowan house. Several minutes later Adams’ brigade arrived and passed over the same ground as had Savage. Col. Savage withdrew his men a short distance south, while Adams’ brigade, "…attacked the enemy with spirit for a short time, but it was soon driven back in disorder and confusion, Colonel Savage’s regiment retiring with it."(712)

16-"About this time General Adams reported that he had come to relieve me. I told my men to rally at the turn of the river where it leaves the railroad. General Adams’ brigade commenced to take their places and had not got into position until the enemy charged, and it was driven in confusion. The men of the Sixteenth and those who were acting with it were ordered to retreat up the river. A few of the Sixteenth had gone so far down the river that they were not able to make the turn and were captured."(140)

5-"M.E. Adcock and I picked him [Lt. Anderson] up when we started to fall back. We ran under the river bank with him and were cut off and captured with ten or twelve others. ... The enemy let me remain with my Lieutenant until he died, which was about thirty-six hours."(11)

16-"Donelson’s regular aides were his son-in-law and his son. They were not upon the field; he says in his report that they were absent by leave. Captain Rice, a distinguished lawyer of Nashville, attended him as a volunteer aide. Rice told me that when he and Donelson came over the hill in that part of the field in which the Sixteenth Regiment was fighting, "the regiment was engaged with the forces coming up the river from Round Forest;" and that Donelson, seeing a lot of men lying upon the ground between the railroad and the turnpike, near where the Hazen Monument now stands, called his attention to them, and said "Look there. Those men are skulkers. Go and order them to join Colonel Savage, who is fighting down the river." Rice says he galloped over to where the men were lying and found them all dead, dressed in perfect line of battle, that he galloped back and said, "General, these men are not skulkers. They are dead men." He said the general shook all over and the tears ran down his cheeks."(143)

15/2-"…after the arrival of General Adams’ brigade, he [Savage] withdrew his regiment, he left 30 dead men in the line he had occupied."(707)

16-"The regiment was rallied, reformed and placed in line of battle behind the works erected by General Chalmers."(140)

15/3-Donelson left this portion of the field, following the repulse of Jackson’s brigade over the same ground, and went in search of the remainder of his brigade. The 38th, 8th, and seven companies of the 51st Tennessee regiments were found east of Wilkinson Pike in line of battle on the edge of the open field, their left aligned with Stewart’s right. There, the main portion of the brigade, "…remained under a very heavy fire from the enemy’s artillery, both of shell and shot, until dark, when I withdrew my brigade about 200 yards, for the night, throwing out a strong picket for its protection. During the night I ordered Colonel Savage’s command to rejoin the brigade, and collected all that I could of my stragglers, and had them brought to their respective commands."(712)

15-After the day’s success, and opposition stiffened on the Federal right, Cheatham formed his division in a double line of infantry with his front line composed of Maney, Stewart, Loomis’ brigades from left to right, and a second line, from left to right, with Donelson, Preston, Adams and Manigault’s brigades. The lines were concealed in a cedar brake, south and west of the Round Forest.(707)

5-Thompson had left his knapsack in camp prior to battle. While being led to the rear of the Federal positions, he eyed the ground for a good, lonely knapsack. "So I watched as I went along and when I came to my knapsack, I slung it on and also a well-filled haversack. I found that I had two fine blankets, two or three good winter shirts, plenty of socks, etc.."(12)

15-The official casualties of the 16th Tennessee at Murfressboro were listed as one officer (Capt. D. C. Spurlock) and thirty five enlisted men killed, eight officers and one-hundred and forty-seven wounded with one officer and fifteen enlisted men missing. The regiment had lost over fifty percent casualties in two back to back battles.(676)

15/3-"Capt. L. N. Savage, acting lieutenant-colonel, and Captain [J. J.] Womack, acting major of the Sixteenth Regiment, most efficient officers, were severely, if not mortally, wounded, and Captain D. C. Spurlock, of the same regiment, an excellent officer and most esteemable gentleman, was killed."(713)

5-The majority of rebel prisoners taken at Murfreesboro were taken to Camp Douglass, Illinois. Thompson spent about three months in the "White Oak Square" of the prison where he and M.E. Adcock ran a breastpin shop.(12)

15/1-Gen. Polk’s report regarding operations at Murfreesboro described the part taken by his corps. "All the line in their front was carried except the extreme right. This point, which was the key to the enemy’s position, and which was known as the Round Forest, was attacked by the right of the brigade. It was met by a fire from artillery and musketry which mowed down more than half its number. The Sixteenth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, under the command of Col. John H. Savage, lost 207 out of 402. It could not advance and would not retire. Their colonel, with characteristic bravery and tenacity, deployed what was left of his command as skirmishers and held his position for three hours."(698)




15/3-January 1-2-"On Thursday and Friday but little was done, save to keep my men (under an occasional shelling) in line of battle and on the alert, either for any demonstration on the part of the enemy or any movement that might be in the contemplation of my commanding officers. During this interval my dead were buried, and my wounded, which had not already been cared for, properly attended to."(712)

19-James Gribble and James Martin scoured the field in search of their dead and wounded comrades, locating and identifying many of the dead. However they were only accounted for and their bodies would be buried in mass graves at Evergreen Cemetery.

18-"After the battle I went over the field and saw where our forces had captured a battery and there were more dead men to 40 or 50 yards square than I ever saw during the whole war. Most of them were Yankees and I think from the way things looked that the Yankees used their guns until most of them were killed right on the spot. I noticed that they had cut their horses throats. They were lying around there men and horses together."(Apr. 19)

15/3-January 2-4-"Friday afternoon, under orders from Major-General Cheatham, I moved my brigade forward, parallel with the Wilkinson Pike, about a half mile, in order to relieve Maney’s brigade on the front line. There we remained, with a strong picket thrown out in front, and skirmishing with the enemy’s pickets nearly all the while, until 1 o’clock Sunday morning, January 4, when in obedience to orders from Major-General Cheatham, we took up line of march to Shelbyville."(712)

15/2-January 4-Gen. Cheatham stated: "On Sunday morning, at 1 o’clock, preparations having been previously made, my command brought up the rear as the army slowly fell back toward Shelbyville."(708)

17-Jan 4-"On the 4th day of January 1863 we fell back towards Shelbyville and stayed all night…"(47)

17-Jan 5-"… moved on the South East Side of Duck River and taken camps. Here we stayed until Feb. the 28th…"(47)

8-Brigadier General Donelson was promoted to Departmental command which left a vacancy for brigade commander. Savage, having served faithfully and gallantly in all engagements preceeding, and having such high support in the ranks of his regiment and brigade, naturally thought that the vacancy would be filled by his promotion to Brigadier General. When Lt. Col. M. J. Wright was appointed to that position over him, with no military experience of real value and against the wishes of the men, Savage resigned his commission. Dillard explained: "... these men did not and could not comprehend why it was that the reigning powers should ignore the claims of the brigade, go outside of it, and take a stranger to it, a junior in rank, and place him in command as a Brigadier. I say these men could not see any plausible reason for such a strange, unusual course, against their wishes and merited indignity and a complete ignoring of all just claims to which meritorious service may have entitled him, and he thereupon tendered his resignation and quit the service".(344)

16-Savage was certain that Donelson and Isham Harris, governor of Tennessee, were out to get him in any way. Whether ensuring his death in battle or ending his political career. "H. H. Faulkner, major of the Sixteenth Regiment, wrote me a letter stating that "while Savage was under arrest at Pocotalligo, S. C., General Donelson read him a letter from I. G. Harris, in which Harris wrote, ‘he had his foot on Savage’s neck and he should never be promoted.’"(145)

17-Feb. 28-March 1-"… we was ordered to Tullahoma & reached there March the 1st day. Camped in the former camping place before going to Murfressboro two nights and one day."(47)

4-February 1863-The regiment was camped 1/2 mile north of Tullahoma west of the R.R..(#16)

17-Mar 3-"… was ordered down the Rail Road one mile from Tullahoma towards Normandee, where we taken winter quarters until April the 21st."

2-March 12-L. N. Savage died of wounds in Murfreesboro.(80)

18-"While there we threw up breastworks and cleared Bragg’e "new ground" on the west and north of town. The clearing was something like a fourth of a mile wide and went by the name of Bragg’s New Ground for years."(Apr. 19)

5-March 22-While most of the Sixteenth had been erecting breastworks in Tullahoma, Thompson, and the other prisoners of Murfreesboro were being exchanged at City Point, Va., and would have to make the journey back to their regiment.(14)

4-Regulations, while at Tullahoma were strict, and many of the men became tired of the war and the burdens that had been placed upon them. Clark recalled one man who ran away three times only to be caught and brought back to camp every time. On the third capture, he was sentenced to death, and the entire brigade was forced to attend his shooting by a squad of six men.(#16)

4-Because of the ammunition restrictions, soldiers were not allowed to carry their arms out of bivouac as they "wasted" ammunition shooting for squirrels and the likes. Many men of the Sixteenth spent time in the guardhouse for violating this regulation, like Mark Mitchell, who was hunting for his sickly brother Martin.(#16)

4-One man created "meaness" in camp and was told he would have to dig up a huge stump for punishment. Sick and tired of the rules and war, he refused, and was "bucked and gagged" on and off throughout the next several days hoping to break his will. It did not, and his punishment was ended by the order to march.(#17)

4-Three men were arrested at home after having run away. When sentenced, they were forced to ride a wooden horse, with the man sitting in front nearest the decomposing beef head, who was a preacher, to wear a sign around his neck with a sign painted "Come on Boys!"(#17)

4-Most of the time spent at Tullahoma was encompassed building fortifications and earthworks to repell an expected enemy advance. When time permitted, the men were allowed to visit with their families and friends that had made the trek with cakes and other food goods.(#17)

17-Apr 21-"Then taken up line of march and went in three miles of Shelbyville and camped at Holt’s Camp Ground on the Fayetteville Pike."(47)

17-May 18-"… was ordered to Shelbyville, camped in the bent of the River South East of Town until June the 8th…"(47)

17-June 8-"… ordered three miles down on the Fair Field Pike, leading from Shelbyville to Fair Field."(47)

N-Finding the Federal army advancing with a large flanking force, Bragg, who had spent many man hours fortifying the countryside, withdrew his army without contest.

5-On July 1st the withdraw towards Chattanooga commenced.(15)

4-"We started south crossing Elk River at Allisonia & on by Deckard."(#18)

1-In July of 1863, Major Murray of the 22nd Battalion, with several officers from his command, was assigned by Gen. Bragg to recruiting duty. At his time, the Battalion was consolidated with the 38th Tennessee. Although some separate reports were filed for some time, it is apparent that the consolidation became permanent as many members of the battalion were paroled as members of the 38th Tennessee.(167)

18-"On this march I remember I found some apples about the size of a quail’s egg, under an apple tree and I ate about as many as I could hold, and that night we were notified that we could draw rations but I was too tired and sleepy to get up. I was about petered out and had done without rations so long I was not hungry."(Apr. 19)

4-"We left the R.R. to our right & crossed a spur of the mountain passing through some little village & on to Tennessee River ... we crossed the river near the mouth of Battle Creek."(#18)

4-"We then went on & the road went under the R.R. bridge that crossed Running Water Creek, & on to 'White Sides' a station on the R.R. in 13 miles of Chattanooga. We got transportation on the R.R. from there to Chattanooga, & camped."(#18)

18-"At Chattanooga we went into camp southeast of town and had a very good time there. As usual, when I didn’t have any Yankees to whip I was in some devilment. I had a chum who was always ready for anything and when necessary I would write a pass, sign all the necessary officers’ names to it and we would go to town. I had two trust comrades, Bob Tucker and John Robinson. Robinson and I would go to town and he would borrow $10 of somebody, then we would proceed to enclose the quart. The quart cost $10. Then we would find where some citizen was selling it on the sly. I would take our canteens and go where it was kept for sale, go in and find that he had it, get my vessels full, sit down and have a big talk. About the time we got in a good way Robinson would rush in, the maddest you ever saw. He would cuss and abuse me, threaten to kick me out of the house, etc., then he would turn to the man and tell him what he would do to me when he got me back to camp, and while that was going on I would quietly walk out with the liquor. They would talk a while (to give me time to get away) then Robinson would say he must go. When the man would say that I had not paid for the whiskey, then Robinson was madder than ever. He would cuss and tear around and say he had given me the money to pay for it and he would go and bring me back. He would finally locate me out of town and as our business in town had been transacted we would go back to camp."(Apr. 26)

4-Once again, the Sixteenth began construction on earthworks. Many men began deserting the ranks at Chattanooga, having had enough of it all.(#18)

18-"On another occasion I took Bob Tucker. Bob had been to town the day before and had partly made a deal for a lot of ginger cakes and had told the fellow he would go back to camp and come in the next day with his partner and close the deal. So I fixed up our credentials and we lit out for town. When we got to the fellow’s store, a small concern, he was very busy with customers and told us to walk into the back room, and he would be in soon. He had the cakes in sheets about the size of a door but had a lot cut up into regulation size. About this time we heard an awful noise in the alley and the door being locked I jumped up and caught the transom and held there to see what was the matter and while there Tucker was stuffing my haversack full of cakes. I held on till he filled it and then let loose and as he had his filled we thought while the commotion lasted we would walk out the door. The only thing that had happened was a white fellow had knocked a negro down in the alley. We returned to camp with about as many ginger cakes as anybody ever stuffed in two haversacks.

A few days afterward a fellow came to camp selling pies and other things out of a wagon. I went up to where he was doing business and at once saw he was in need of a clerk, as everything was going like hot cakes. I said: ‘Mister, you don’t seem to be able to wait on them all. I will help you if you want me to.’ He said, ‘All right,’ so I got up in the hind end of the wagon and the way I sold truck was a sight. Robinson, my partner, and messmate wanted a whole lot of stuff and would buy only of me. He would buy 75 cents worth and give me a dollar and I would give him three or four dollars change. Now and then when Robinson was gone I would hand over what money I had to the boss. But Robinson was the best customer we had.

In the evening the fellow went to the Colonel and told him he had a load that ought to have brought him $250 or $300 and he only got about $50 out of it. I felt sorry for the fellow and never charged him a cent for helping him. I’m telling these things as few would know of the kind traits of a soldier if I had not.

I was going down Main street in Chattanooga one day when I saw a crowd of soldiers gathered around a big fat fellow, a Colonel of a Tennessee regiment, who was full as a tick. He had a fish pole on his shoulder and seemed to be headed for the river. The boys were teasing him and they got him red hot. He would cuss them with all the cuss words he could muster up and he could muster up a whole lot of them. He told them they would desert if the were not so far from home and he handed it out to them in fine style. One of the soldiers said, ‘Well, old man, go on about your fishing. I hope you catch lots of fish.’ He said, ‘I hope I won’t get a d-d bite.’

I remember while we were camped there I took a couple of canteens and went down to a spring to get some water. The spring was in a narrow gulley and I saw three Muscovy ducks about half grown so I spread myself out like a woman spreads her dress when she is driving a hen and chicks; I did that to keep them from going by me. When one came near enough I would grab it, pull its head off and put it in my shirt bosom. I served them all the same way and they cut up and flopped until the front of my shirt was as bloody as though a hog had been butchered in my bosom. But I tell you they were fine eating on an empty stomach."

While we were camped on Missionary ridge we went up the river a short distance where a creek run into the Tennessee river above Chattanooga and the first we knew a lot of Yankees opened on us and we got away from there in short order."(Apr. 26)

5-Sept 1-The Federals arrived across the river and commenced shelling the city, dropping shells near a church and causing commotion amongst the citizens.(15)

5-Thompson was called to Colonel Donnel's headquarters and informed that he had been selected as the regimental color bearer, "and proceeded to give me such a nice compliment for my soldierly qualities that I could scarcely refuse to take it."(15)

12-"The brigade of General Wright, formerly Donelson’s, comprised the Eighth regiment, Col. John H. Anderson; Sixteenth, Col. D. M. Donnell; Twenty-eighth, Col. Sidney S. Stanton; Thirty-eighth and Maj. T. B. Murray’s battalion, Col. John C. Carter; Fifty-first and Fifty-second, Lieut.-Col. John G. Hall."(92)

4-Sept 8-For a second time, the army was ordered to move south to avoid a siege, and early one evening, the Sixteenth took up a line of march for Crawfish Springs. That night, another of the many famous stampedes took place.(#18)

3-The regiment left camps at 8 a.m., proceeded very slowly, and encamped at Lee & Gordon Mill on Chicamauga Creek after a dusty 13 mile march.(18)

12-"The brigade of General Wright, formerly Donelson’s, comprised the Eighth regiment, Col. John H. Anderson; Sixteenth,

Col. D. M. Donnell; Twenty-eighth, Col. Sidney S.Stanton; Thirty-eighth and Maj. T.B. Murray’s battalion, Col. John C.

Carter; Fifty-first and Fifty-second, Lieut.-Col. John G. Hall."(92)

Sept 9-"The Regt. went out on picket to crawfish spring".(18)

3-Sept 10-"We leve at 9 oclock P.M. we travel all night arrived at LaFayette at daylight encampt. distance 15 miles".(18)

3-Sept 11-"Moved one mile from town encamped".(18)

3-Sept 13-"Our army moved back to Rock Springs to meet the enemy. No fighting yet".(18)

3-Sept 16-"Move to another campe ground one mile. Cook rations".(18)

4-Sept 18-The regiment crossed Chickamauga Creek at Lee & Gordon Mills and marched ten mile south of there to Lafayette, Ga.. After reaching there, they were given orders to countermarch back to the vicinity of the Mill.(#18)

12-"The brigade of General Wright, formerly Donelson’s, comprised the Eighth regiment, Col. John H. Anderson; Sixteenth, Col. D. M. Donnell; Twenty-eighth, Col. Sidney S. Stanton; Thirty-eighth and Maj. T. B. Murray’s Battalion, Col. John C. Carter; Fifty-first and Fifty-second, Lieut.-Col. John G. Hall."(92)

4-Sept 19-"On the morning of the 19th we crossed the Creek again at the said mill, and moved eastwardly a short distance, then halted & formed."(#18)

7-Carnes’ Battery "About nine o’clock the order came to move to the west side of the creek, the crossing of which was made at Hunt’s Ford, some two miles above Alexander’s bridge, a march of about two miles. On both sides of the road sat the soldiers of Longstreet’s corps, who had just reached the ground from Dalton, where they arrived early that morning by rail. The soldiers of Longstreet’s corps were splendid-looking men, healthy, clean, and well dressed. As the battery, accompanied by Wright’s brigade, thundered rapidly over the rough road between the rows of Eastern veterans, the latter fixed a gaze of astonishment upon these the first Western Army men they had yet seen. The Virginians were excusable. The Army of Tennessee never looked worse, while at the same time it was never in better fighting order. But three weeks of maneuvering in the densest dust without washing had conferred the same uninteresting color upon everything-man, beast, and material."(821)

4-"We knew our time was near. Orders were given to 'double quick' & we pressed forward, knowing that we would soon be engaged."(#18)

7-Carnes’ Battery "The battery moved on at a trot, with Wright’s Brigade, and inadvertently going too far to the right, ground had to be taken to the left, the column at the same time nearing the enemy’s front, but approaching it diagonally. The Federal artillery was doing its best, and the open forest was filled with missiles from which Walker’s division had just fled, leaving a gap which Cheatham’s brigades were now to occupy."(821)

5-"Our Brigade was placed on the left and we made a long, double quick march to get to our place in the line."(16)

7-Carnes’ Battery "Wright’s brigade, at a double-quick the last four hundred yards, approached within perhaps three hundred yards of the enemy’s works, and swiftly drew into line of battle, not leaving room for the battery to form in the center of their line as they should have done. Capt. Carnes halted the battery a moment in line close behind the brigade, presuming the usual situation would be accorded the artillery for the protection of its flanks; but the heavy, devastating fire of the enemy forbade the brigade to attend to the rights of the battery. After three of the cannoneers were killed in this awkward situation-two of them being young men of Augusta, Ga., who had been recently enrolled from Pritchard’s battery-the Captain, on his own responsibility, ordered the battery forward till it should pass the left flank of Wright’s brigade, a movement which was executed at a trot, all in plain sight of the enemy’s artillery and infantry …"(821)

4-"Col Donnel told us to be careful & not shoot our Pickets, as they fell back to our line in advancing in the woods, Jim Martin said 'Yonder they are!', & Col. Donnel said 'Don't shoot they are our men', but Jim said, 'Our men hell!', and bang went his gun, which opened the ball for us. The Yanks were swinging around & never saw us, as their attention was directed to the firing on our right. Those in front of us fell back to their battery, & the grape and canister flew apparently as thick as blackbirds."(#18)

7-Carnes’ Battery "The limber-chest standing open, and the team not having been reversed, the white pine of the unclosed cover raised vertically attracted hundreds of hostile infantry shots, which, passing through the wood and puncturing the outside tin, made the chest resemble a huge grater. Three or four men were endeavoring to loosen the ammunition at the same time with their heads over the chest, but strangely enough not one of them was then hit. All the horses of the piece, however, except the wheel-team, were killed before the gun was discharged. The wheel-team were hit, and, springing over the roots of a large tree, turned the limber bottom upward, scattering the ammunition on the ground like a load of apples. … Four times a minute for the first three or four minutes, at least, each gun was discharged at very short range, probably two hundred yards; but the battery was a target for the concentrated fire of both the adverse artillery and infantry, since Wright’s brigade had disappeared from the right flank, though it rallied long enough to stand one volley after the battery went into action; but now-that is, eight or ten minutes after the battery was in line-the whole brigade was out of sight. … Colonel John C. Carter, of the Thirty-eighth Tennessee, refused to leave the line with his regiment, and, finding himself alone, came walking into the battery as if for a social visit. His lavish display of coolness and his intrepidity were indeed admirable."(821-2)

12-"Wright’s brigade occupied the left of the division line, made a brave fight for two hours and was constantly exposed to a flanking fire, which, growing in volume, finally forced it to retire. Carnes’ artillery company of this brigade, lost half its strength; the gallant Lieutenant Van Vleck was killed and most of the battery horses."(97)

7-Carnes’ Battery: "The enemy, easily perceiving the odd exposure of the artillery, jumped over their works, ran behind a large fallen tree, about a hundred yards farther to the left, lying at right angles to the line of the guns, and, resting their muskets on the fallen tree, poured a heavy fire right across the battery from flank to flank. The left piece under the direction of the Captain, wheeled and gave them several shots, mainly to cover the retreat of the battery men not killed, for it was now evident that the place was untenable. Lieut. Cockrill was serving the guns of his section effectively, though only two or three men remained to each detachment. The right section was playing squarely to the front under command of Lieut. Marshall, who was on foot assisting, for by this time only two of the detachment of the right piece had escaped death or severe wounds. … Nineteen of the men were killed dead in their places, and upward of twenty men were wounded, most of whom never resumed service in the artillery. Forty-nine horses were killed in harness. The situation was held about ten minutes after the infantry left us. … When all the horses had fallen except one of the teams of the right section, the Captain gave orders to limber up the right piece and get away. The team came forward under the gallant drivers in the midst of a storm of all sorts of shot, but the six horses fell in a heap, the lead-team with their heads on the trail of the piece they were going to save. The Captain then said: "We can’t save the battery; let the men leave as quick as possible." The guns were now silent. The men were all now lying on the ground, whether dead, wounded or unhurt, and occupying as little space as possible. Marshall called to his section to rise and follow, when he mounted his horse, which stood near hitched to a swinging limb. He mounted not very hastily, for the act seemed to challenge the enemy’s fire. The latter, however, were intent on killing at first all the artillery-horses they could, and beside they were at the moment extending their flanking enterprise, and were now somewhat in rear of the battery. These two circumstances probably saved the survivors, for it was at that time quite in the power of the enemy, without danger, to pick off every one of the battery men who left the place. Thirty-five men only followed the Captain and Lieutenants from the terrible spot. The little party, instead of going to the rear, had to travel for two hundred yards across the line of the enemy’s fire, as the battery was nearly surrounded before they started."(822-3)

4-"Our brigade at that time composed the left wing of our line, & the enemy's line extended ours & captured our Battery of 4 cannon on our left, commanded by Capt. Carnes."(#19)

7-28th Tennessee: "During the engagement of Saturday the enemy discovered that we were not supported on our left, and commenced a flank movement to surround and capture Carnes’ battery, which was attached to Wright’s Brigade. To prevent this the brigade was ordered to move by the left flank, under a heavy fire from the front and flank. For a few moments our regiment paused. While the men were falling on the right and left from the effects of the enfilading fire of the enemy with both shell and shot, Col. Stanton rode rapidly up to the Color Sergeant, and taking hold of the flag-staff, cried out: "Boys, remember we are Tennesseans; follow me!" Frank Arnold, the Color-bearer, refused to give up the flag, but followed Col. Stanton near the enemy’s main line, seventy-five yards in front of where the regiment was ordered to lie down and fire. During the time Col. Stanton had hold of the flag there were thirty holes made in it by Minie-balls. About this time Gen. Wright’s horse was shot from under him; and our ammunition being exhausted, and his whole staff being dismounted in the fight, the General directed Maj. Smith to go to the Eighth and Sixteenth Tennessee regiments and order them to move to the rear by the right of divisions, in order to replenish our empty cartridge boxes-the enemy still flanking us on our left. Just as we commenced to move to the rear we met Stewart’s division, marching en echelon. I never saw as many men killed in so short a time as were killed by Stewart’s men. They struck the enemy’s flank, and mowed them down, and soon drove them from their position."(431)

4-"The loss of our battery so early in the battle, & the enemy flanking our left, almost demoralized our men, until we saw Gen'l. Longstreet coming to our aid."(#19)

4-"The battle was raging terribly on our right."(#19)

18-"I drew one minie ball. It glanced across my cheek about half an inch from my right eye and the scar is there now. I don’t know how many I killed for I had no chance to count them."(Apr. 26)

4-"A minnie ball clipped my canteen strap, & down it went, but I picked it up & put it in my haversack."(#19)

4-"The boys were falling killed & wounded all around. A grape shot struck a tree a little way from me and a piece of bark struck my nose a glancing lick, tearing off a lot of hide, & made a scab for a while."(#19)

18-"… after I was wounded I went for the rear and in going back a cannon ball struck a limb on a big pine tree over me, I heard it hit the limb and stopped a second or so when the limb fell just in front of me. I believe I stepped over it the next step I took after it fell. I have always thought this was the closest call I had in the war."(Apr. 26)

4-"Capt. Parks was mortally wounded near me and I saw Mark Mitchell assist in getting him off. Tom Mooneyham was shot through the leg."(#19)

4-"Our line was being thinned, and I took a quick glance to see if I was left alone, and a few steps to my left stood Bill Payne banging away & a load of grape shot from a cannon struck the ground in front of us & flew by us like a drove of pheasants."(#19)

6/7-Pvt. J. P. Smartt was wounded twice during the engagement, but continued to move and fight with the regiment.

4-"We saw that our line had fallen back a short distance & we went back & reformed."(#19)

12-"The guns being abandoned on the field, the enemy undertook to remove them, but was driven off by Cheatham’s division, and the guns remained between the two contending lines until the subsequent advance of Stewart’s division, when they were recovered by Captain Carnes."(97)

4-Gardner Green lost a leg to a shot while standing near Clark.(#19)

4-"Night came on & we lay in line all night. It turned cold & a heavy frost on the ground next morning. The moans & cries of the wounded on the field between our lines during the night were terrible & pitiful, but dangerous to go to their rescue."(#19)

18-"I was sent to a hospital below there but was back again in a week. While I was in the hospital it seemed that the authorities tried to starve us so we would want to go back to our regiments."(Apr. 26)

12-A few of the known wounded of the Sixteenth included: Mortally wounded: Capt. Parks; Wounded: Col. D. M. Donnell, Lieutenants Potter, Owen, Fisher and Worthington.(103)

1-The regiment lost 68 men in the Battle of Chickamauga.(209)

4-Sept 20-The regiment and brigade were held in reserve during most of the day until evening when they were formed on the far right and participated in the rout of Yankee troops to Snodgrass Hill.(#19)

12-"Breckenridge, after a fierce combat at close quarters, routed the first line of the enemy, but found it impossible to break the second, and retired to his original position. Finally, another advance was ordered and Breckenridge dashed over the enemy's breastworks in his front, though the enemy made stubborn resistance. In this assault he had the cooperation of Jackson’s, Maney’s and Wright’s brigades of Cheatham’s division."(105)

8-Dillard, acting as Major during the battle, recalled, "Our division was charging their works near dark, when the corps of Thomas gave way and joined in the general rout. Our whole line was perfect. So was the division just in our rear, over which we had just trotted as they had lain down for us to pass over them. Here we were ordered to stack arms, amid the dead and dying; and here and near by we remained inactive for days, until the routed enemy had full time to re-form and plant himself in our own works around Chattanooga".(342-3)

5-E. L. Atnip and Thompson went in search of water late after the battle had ended. They made their way to the creek easily, but became disoriented going back to the regiment. When they awoke the next morning, Atnip realized he had slept side by side with a dead Yankee.(18)

6-"Here indeed was witnessed the all the dreadful "horrors of war." I turned and went back, lay down under a tree and fell asleep, listening to the humming, dull roar that pervaded the heavens everywhere above our camping, victorious army."(343-4)

3-Sept 21-"Capt. J. M. Parks died to day".(18)

12-"It was not until 2 p.m. of the 21st that an advance of the army was made. Cheatham, leading it on the right, bivouacked for the night at the "Mission House," and moving early on the morning of the 22nd, reached Missionary Ridge at 10 a.m. He reported that finding the enemy on the crest of the ridge in force, his position was assailed and carried by Maney’s and Vaughn’s brigades after a spirited engagement of a few minutes.(111)

N-Following the battle, the Federals withdrew within the confines of Chattanooga, and the Confederate Army was deployed along the southern edge of Chattanooga with positions on Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge.

4-"Our regiment took position at the western foot of the ridge, & were in sight of Chattanooga."(#19)

18-Sept 26-About this time, "I got very hungry one day while at Chickamauga I sauntered out to where some citizens were selling things that a hungry soldier likes and there I did one of the meanest tricks I was guilty of during the war. I never have felt just right about it to this good day. While I was standing around seeing others buying and eating I saw a woman selling half moon pies. She had an old horse and buggy and I walked up to her and said, ‘Madam, do you see that man walking off there?’ pointing to a fellow about twenty steps away. She said she did and I said, ‘That fellow stole a lot of your pies.’ She went after him, and as soon as she started I commenced to pile half moon pies into my bosom. I stored away my goods and by the time she got through with the fellow I had business somewhere else, I went out behind a big pine tree and soon got outside the pies and went to my command."(May 3)

18-"Soon after this I was on the battlefield the first day after my return. The Yankee soldiers that had been killed had not been buried and it was about a week as I recollect after the battle. The bodies were swollen so one could hardly see that they were men. They were actually as large as a horse. That was the worst sight I ever saw in the war. There was another thing I saw the same day, that I have always felt a delicacy in telling, that was our forces had gathered up all the small arms that was left on the field, a week before, the guns of our killed and wounded and the Yankees too, for we were in possession of the field, and the guns were stacked up like cord wood. I never measured how long the ricks were but feel safe in saying that they were seventy-five yards each."(May 3)

3-Oct 3-The regiment was relieved from picket duty, which they have performed since the Battle of Chicamauga.(19)

3-Oct 15-After several days of heavy rains, Etter recorded: "Still raining the roads almost impassable. The bridge across the Chickamauga creek washed away to day. The regment is on one side and we are on another".(19)

4-Parson Dewitt preached to the men every Sunday while the army was idle in the siege. Clark noted of the reverence of the soldiers at this particular time, "You might as well preach to a drove of wild hogs as a lot of soldiers. I have seen boys with blankets spread on the grounds, playing cards in a few steps of the Preacher while preaching."(#19)

4-In mid-October, the regiment was deployed as part of a force to prevent the crossing of Federal forces at the Hiwassee River bridge at Charleston, Tennessee. The men marched to a small depot and boarded trains for Charleston.(#20)

3-Oct 29-The 16th Regiment's supply trains left the creek campground and traveled to Cleveland Tennessee.(20)

3-Oct 30-The supply trains reached Charleston at 7 a.m..(20)

3-Nov 5-A Union sympathizer shot and killed one of the men of the regiment.(20)

3-Nov 12-Drill.(20)

3-On November 23, the supply trains recieved orders to load up and move out the following day. They left at daylight on the 24th and traveled until 9 p.m.. Unknown to the wagon train, a detatchment of Federal cavalry was encamped within three miles of them as they laid down for the night.(20)

3-Nov 25-"I was waked up at 2 oclock was ordered to leave the mules in the utmost hast most all the boys did not believe the report to be true. We left at 3 a.m. taken a by road across an uncomon rough ridge At daylight we sucseded in crossing the rig and intersecting the mane road that leed from Clevelin Tenn. to Ringold Ga. We came on quite fast in consideration that our lods was heavy and the mules was worn out. At sunup the yankes was reported near by At 8 oclock a.m. some of the wagons mired up in mud I being the rear wagons had to stop untill the wagon could be got out of the road. While some of the boys was at work gitting the wagon out of the mud the yankes come in ful sail sword in hand. We being but a few had no power against many and allso we was unarmed. Nothing but a hasty flight could save us from imediate captivity. I nearby made my escape to a pine thicket wher I lay in conselement untill they was gone. I saw them burn all the bagage. As soon as they lef I return to the place where the wagons was burned. I gathered up some fragments of what they lef such as cooking utencils. This the day of the fight at Mishenary Ridge. ... At night I took up logen with a man named Blackburn where the wagons was burned up".(20)

5-Nov 25-The men arrived on the extreme right and marched along Chickamauga Creek in columns four ranks deep with their guns empty. Suddenly, a line of infantry and a masked battery opened fire from across the creek. The men hopped over a rail fence to their immediate right and commenced firing.(18)

6/2-"We were marched right along into close contact with the enemy without heed to repeated warnings which were given to our commander. When the Eighth and Sixteenth Regiments got well into this part of the road a signal was given on the enemy's left and a volley was poured into our ranks. General -------- quickly turned his horse and gave order, 'Get your men into line, Col. Anderson! I'll go and order up the artillery.' Whether he ever found the artillery he went back to order we never knew. The next we heard of him he was commanding the Post at Atlanta, a post we were willing he should fill, as it gave us a brigade commander."(377)

5-"After firing a few rounds, we were ordered to fall back."(19)

5-Henry Tate was on the color guard. Lafayette Clark of Co. D was killed, Lt. W.C. Womack wounded, and T. R. Hooper of the color guard was also wounded.(19)

3-By the 27th, Etter had made his way overland to Dalton and located the regiment which had also just arrived after conducting the rear guard action for the army.(21)

1- In this action the 16th suffered 9 casualties.(209)

4-"The night we arrived at or near Dalton was cold, wet & stormy & almost impossible to have fire. ... Next day, encampment was selected & our regiment located about 3 miles South East of Dalton for the winter. We erected little cabins & daubed with mud & made chimneys of wood & clay."(#20)

3-Dec 7 thru 11-The regiment commenced work on erecting cabins for winter quarters. On the 11th, Etter remarked: "Comest the chimney work all day hard. At night we have us a nice hous everything is complet everything looks nice. Our bed is composed of some chestnut that we have made we have raised it up off of the ground coverd it over with sage grass. We have got a big fire took our seet before it and feel with great obligation to our Heavenly father for giving us the comfortable dweling that I now sit in. Those that enjoy the cabin with is Bill A D. Ware David Miller W. H. Russel".(21)

18-"There was a wood shed and water tank and a detail was sent out every night to see that nothing was molested. I was a non-commissioned officer and I took half a dozen privates and went out there on guard duty all night. On one occasion I remember a soldier came around there to wait till the train pulled in to get a jug of whiskey that he had ordered. One of my chums and I found out that he had a bottle of whiskey in his pocket and we wanted it. He sat around the fire for quite a while before he went to sleep. When he got to snoring about right I motioned to my chum to see if he could ease it out of pocket. He worked for quite a while but failed to land it so I motioned for him to get out of the way and let me try my hand at it. The bottle was a round one and I gave it a kind of a twisted pull and out it came and we went out in the dark and tanked up on it."

"I think it was the same night when the train had pulled in, took on wood and water and had pulled out again a citizen who had come in on the train come into the shed where the guard was and told me he had brought a half dozen sacks of apples and that they were up the track about fifty yards. I told him it would not do to let them remain there, that the soldiers who were camped around there would steal every one of them, and that he had better carry them in and put them around the fire under the shed. I thought that fellow never would go to sleep but he finally dozed off and when he had got to sleeping about right I told one of the guards to get a move on him. He picked up a sack of apples and hid them. The fellow never missed them, for just before day a bunch of soldiers came in and gobbled up the whole business, but we saved our sack and took them to camp when we left."(May 10)

1- Dec. 14- The regiment reported 157 effectives out of 212 present.(209)

18-Dec 25-"We were at Dalton on Christmas day, 1863. We wanted to have something extra, so we put ourselves to thinking. One of our company, G. J. Newman, (Gabe for short) drove a commissary wagon, and on Christmas day he had brought in a barrel of whiskey, for the officers, I suppose, but Gabe let us into the secret, and after night Robinson took a water bucket and got it full and we filled our canteens and whatever we had to put it in. Just before day Gabe came over to our mess and said he had to go to Dalton after some more rations and wanted John Robinson to go with him. I was satisfied that when Robinson went we would have something in the way of a Christmas dinner that would be a hummer when Robinson filled up from a canteen before he left."

"When Robinson and the teamster got to the depot at Dalton Robinson went in and saw a box that he thought would suit him, so he carried it out and put it in the wagon, then went back and got a side of bacon and loaded it. When they arrived in camp Robinson brought the box and meat to our mess and when we opened the box the stuff was there sure enough. The box had been sent from somewhere down in Georgia to some of their folks who were camped around Dalton but they never received it. The contents consisted of sugar, pies, eggs and plenty of other good things too numerous to mention. We invited our company officers and some of the regimental officers to take dinner with us. They inquired where all the good things came from but they never found out. Besides having plenty of good things to eat we had plenty of good old fashioned egg nog. It was a Christmas long to be remembered. We had food times at Dalton as there were no Yankees near to cause us any uneasiness."(May 10)

3-Dec 25-"This is Christmas the boys have got some whiskey and some are tite and others feel there liqor. It is very nice day. We have some potatoes for diner. There is much diference in Christmas here and home".(22)


3-The month of January proved to be excessively cold and miserable for the men. Short on rations and morale, a barbecue was prepared for them and served on the 30th after four days without meat. "We had a fine time a good dinner and good speaking. Night has come and we are full and had plenty to eat".(22)

18-About this time, orders were issued by Gen. Johnston that one in every twenty-five men could be furloughed. Each company put their names in a hat and drew to see who the lucky man would be. Carden’s name was not drawn, but a comrade who had no family in the deep south so he gave the furlough to Carden. After a long journey, and running low on money and near brushes with Federal cavalry, Carden finally made it to Holly Springs, Mississippi where he had an aunt. Unfortunately, his aunt had traveled south prior to his arrival, but he was soon greeted with open arms as word got out that one of ‘Old Joe’s’ boys was in town. He met one gentleman who had two sons in the same company in which Robert belonged. This man offered his home to Robert. The next day another gentleman learned of his origins and Robert knew many of his family back home in Tennessee well. Finally, Gen. Marcus J. Wright’s sister called on him for dinner as he had served in Wright’s Brigade.(May 17)

3-Feb 13-"Cousin Tom Miller come to see me to day he has made his escape from the yankees he jumped off the cars near Lake Eriery Ohio and found his way out of the Northern states in to the Confederate states. He has made a wonderful escape".(23)

3-Feb 14-The 28th Tennessee Regt. arrived in the brigade camp after a tour with Longstreet's command at Knoxville.(23)

3-Feb 18-Rumors were always present in the ranks, and Etter and the others heard, "... we think we are going to misasipy".(23)

3-Feb 19-"I am low down in spirits. I dont think there ever was a move made that we dislike more in all the company. I lay myself down in our cabin to sleep for the last time we think for ever which has shelter us a great many cold and gloomy nights".(23)

3-Feb 20-"We was ordered up at 4 oclock A.M. the regiment left at daylight for Dalton I am not ordered to leve. The boys are all gone and I am here yet".(23)

3-Feb 23-Etter was ordered to move the wagons to Dalton without delay. In route, Etter fell from his horse and injured his side. They traveled 25 miles and encamped at Calhoun.(23)

18-About this time, R. C. Carden, returning from his furlough with a small band of others, finally reached Selma, Alabama only to find that he had passed his regiment in route to Mississippi. He met up with some of the regimental officers at Montgomery and stayed on with them until returning to Dalton following the cancellation of those orders.(May 17)

3-Feb 28-The regiment returned from its short lived transfer to the same cabins they had left only a week before. "C.M. Rutledge came in from the hospittle he has been at the hospittle ever sence we was at Mishinary Ridge. I found the boys in good spirits and glad to get back to their old camp ground".(23)

3-Mar 11-"We drew a good many clothing to day".(24)

3-Mar 20-"We have preching to day. Chaplin of the eight regt. preached a good surmon his tecks was in Romens by faith we have peace with god".(24)

3-Mar 22-Following a three inch snowfall the night before, Etter recorded: "This is a lively time with the boys what a time they have".(24)

3-Mar 23-"Cheathams division has gone to snowball Walkers division. They have it up and down our division whip the Gubors grablers in their huts".(24)

5-"While we were camped here in our winter huts, there fell a soft snow about four inches deep. Our men and General Walker's got to snowballing. The field officers mounted their horses and ordered our side to charge, which they did with a yell in fine style, and captured Walker's quarters. Everyone had a lot of fun and did not lose a man. All returned to their quarters well satisfied with the sport, as the victor, I suppose, always feels elated."(21)

18-"It commenced in a small way but grew to be a big battle with at least a brigade on each side with officers and colors. The snow was five or six inches deep. There was a small branch between the combatants and sometimes one side then the other would have possession of the field. Sometimes the Tennesseans would drive the Georgia men back, then they would rally and drive the other side. They used up all the snow on the field then each side had a detail to bring up big snowballs to be used as ammunition. Our Tennessee side finally charged the Georgia fellows and ran them back to their camp. I never got there for at the branch a Georgia fellow rolled up a snowball with a lot of ground with it and struck me in the eye, coming very near to knocking my eye out, so I got knocked out and went back to the rear. I understood that several lost an eye in the fight."(May 10)

3-Mar 24-"The 8 regt. and 16 regt. atacted 28 and 51 they got whip and they drove our boys in they tents".(24)

3-Mar 26-"We had a good surmon at night Parson Bur preached".(24)

3-Mar 28-Cheatham's Division conducted division drill.(24)

3-Mar 30-"We drew some cloth to day. They was sent to the destitute men of Wrights bregade. They was sent on by the ladies through charity".(24)

5-Henry Tate and James Thompson, seeing that their preacher had to conduct services in the open air, decided to erect the brush harbors. They used pine logs for the structure and chose a tree from which to cut planks with an old farmer's frow. Thompson stated that their were several conversions. "We went to a nearby branch and made a dam of brush, pieces of boards and pine straw and raised the water deep enough to baptise them by immersion, which was done as neatly as if it had been done in the River Jordan." The methodists led the number in conversions, followed by the Presbyterians and baptists.(21)

3-Apr 7-"This is a gloomy morning. Our boys go to Dalton to fight a sham fight they have a grest time of it. Our division fight Gen. Claborn. There is preching at night we have a good surmon".(25)

3-Apr 8-"This is set apart for fasting and praying most of the boys ate keeping the day we are willing to do anything to bring about peace. Most of the regiment goes out on picket".(25)

3-Apr 10-"We have meeting. Old Father McCrutchen preached for us an able and interesting surmon".(25)

4-When men were caught disobeying orders or conducting other minor infractions of the law, they were sometimes too severely punished, and if passers by judged the punishment to be too harsh, they would in some cases take matters into their own hands. This was the case when some men were placed in stocks at Dalton. They became so concerned of the victims that they rushed the men, freed them and destroyed the stocks.(#21)

3-Apr 16-"Gen. Cheatham has ordered some stock put up in our brig. to punish 3 men that desert in the 5th Tenn. Regt. our men charge them at night and tore them down".(25)

4-The Sixteenth's men were guilty of many of the crimes expected by soldiers in an army, especially when hungry. Clark had been posted for protection of private stock at the home of A.C. Leeks on the Conasuga River. One morning he noted several geese were missing and informed Mrs. Leeks who was terribly disappointed. Unfortunately, there was a whole army out there, and Clark would certainly never find the culprits. Later that day, he returned to camps to see how the boys were doing. To his surprise, the geese were at his own regiment, being stuffed with dough!(#20)

3-Apr 29-"A very sad case occurd in Murrey Breg. whil at church a tree burn down and kill 10 men".(25)

4-It was sometime while here at Dalton that the army experienced a spiritual rebirth. The Chaplains of Wright's Brigade got together and held meeting for a number of days. The men erected brush harbors a short distance from the 16th's encampment. Shortly thereafter, a storm blew down a tree killing several gatherers at the chapel. Clark noted that the chaplains had, "little trouble in persuading boys to the mourners bench."(#21)

18-"One night while these services were going on in the arbor, after the captain had preached an excellent sermon he called upon the penitents to come forward to the altar. Many men came forward and were keeling, the altar being full. Strong men were bowed asking forgiveness for their sins when a large tree standing near, which had got on fire at the stump, burned off and fell right across the arbor where the penitents were upon their knees in prayer, killing nine of them instantly. It fell right along the log upon which they had their heads, crushing them to a pulp. I attended the funeral the next day when the nine were buried in one square grave with the honors of war, a platoon of soldiers firing volleys over the grave."(Aug. 16)

5-That winter, the sun had a dark spot on it visible to the eye. "When the smoke of our camp made the sun appear red, it was to me a very singular phenomenon and called forth much comment among the soldiers."(21)

3-May 2-"We have a good meeting in camps a good many have perfest".(25)

5-While at Dalton, orders were recieved for each regiment to put their state and regimental number on their flags. Thomas Head and Thompson, with the help of a sign painter, cut letters from fabric, and a young lady sewed them on. When completed, the flag read: "16th Regiment Tennessee Volunteers."(20)

4-Upon the commencement of the Atlanta Campaign, the soldiers would suffer severely. Food was scarce, and rest even more so.(#21)

5-While Chaplin W. Ransom was busy giving his sermon in the chapel one morning, the booming of cannon was heard in the distance, and the soldier's face's grew pale. The time had come once again. The sermon was wrapped up, and the men went quickly back to the regiments to fall into line and were marched to the front at Rocky Face Ridge.(22)

3-May 8-"The yankes charged our men. They was repulsed with much loss. We got orders to leve for the front. Left at dark travled most all night".(26)

6/6-P. H. Cantrell and two others (William Fuston and Moss Mason) had been ordered to guard a certain bridge until they received further orders. No orders ever came and they were captured and sent to Rock Island, Illinois.

3-May 9-"Our regt. went on top of stone mountain. I remained with the wagons. Heavy skirmishing all around the lines. Our Brigade have kept them back out of the gap all day".(26)

5-"In places the cliffs were perpendicular. When the enemy pressed in the timber to near the cliffs, Colonel Donelson ordered every man who had no gun to throw and roll rocks over the cliffs. I assisted in turning rock over the cliffs which weighed five to eight hundred pounds. They made a terrible noise as they went down among the enemy and the timber which covered the bridge.(22)

18-"… when we had nothing to do we would carry large rocks up on the ridge and turn them loose. The Yankee pickets were down on the side of the hill and the way those rocks would run and crash against the trees was a caution. The Yankees could stand lead and cannon balls but the rocks were enough to break any of Sherman’s lines that he could form."(May 3)

5-"Close to where I was, there was a small projection of rock in the face of the cliff. One of our boys from Putnam County, Tennessee, by the name of Moody had crawled out on the little ledge of rock and gathered up some loose rock and piled them up for breastworks. He was exchanging shots with a Yankee below and his Father came around to assist him. The son advised him to be careful, that the fellow was shooting very close. The Father stuck his head up over the frail works and said to his son, "Give him a chance, my son; give him a chance." The Yankee fired at him and the bullet struck the cliff just behind his neck and fragments of lead and rock stuck in his neck. ... "Give him a chance, my son" was a by-word among the boys for a long time."(22)

5-Seeing a federal wagon park in a huge open field within cannon range of the top of the ridge, the boys hauled up a rifled cannon with ropes and muscle. In a few shots, the wagons were hitched and the entire field clear of the enemy.(22)

5-"About this time the enemy made a spirited attack on our line at the railroad and we obliqued to our left to assist them. But the assault was soon refuted."(22)

3-May 12-"Arrived at Dalton at night the troops had left and came the sugar valey rode. I traveled 25 mils found them at 3 oclock".(26)

3-May 13-"Left at daylight came to Resacken 7 miles march our men formed line of battle comenst skirmishing at 3 oclock. Our lines formed redy to meet the enemy at Resacken".(26)

4-At Resaca, the regiment supported a battery.(#21)

5-"We took our position to the right of the forts to await the coming of the enemy, which was but a very short time. As soon as our line was formed, we were ordered to fortify with chunks of old wood and rails. We had barely got enough material enough to mark the whereabouts of our line when General Polk and his guard rode up. He cast his eye along the line and ordered us to establish our line further down the hill some thirty to fifty feet, which we did in a jiffy, as the enemy's sharpshooters had got in reach of us. When they got their artillery in position and began to shell us, we saw the advantage which resulted in General Polk's order to move our line. For the cannon shot scraped the land where our first line was located and did not hit our line all evening."(23)

18-"We were on one side of a hollow and the Yankees on top of the hill on the other side. The first evening we were there most of the fighting was an artillery duel and we hugged the ground closely as some of our batteries were up on the hill just behind us. Gen. Polk and his escort came up on the hill behind the battery and we could hear the minie balls strike their horses and they soon left."(May 3)

5-"The enemy appeared in fine military array with their armor gleaming in the sunlight and marching to step three lines deep."(23)

5-"When they came in range of our artillery at the fort at Resaca, they opened a tremendous fire on the exposed columns. Their advance was immediately checked and the enemy's artillery was quickly wheeled into position." The remainder of the evening sharpshooters exchanged shots, and the artillery batteries dueled with little damage to either side. When night came on, the 16th was given tools to improve their lines and dig pits for their skirmishers.(23)

18-"Two of my company, R. E. Garret and James McGuire were lying down behind a log. A cannon ball went under the log and came out between them, covering them with dirt. The Yankees made it hot for us that evening as we did not have time to throw up works. That night we worked nearly all night and by morning we were fixed for them."(May 3)

5-May 14-An attack was repelled on the confederate right, while the 16th stood ready in the trenches.(23)

3-"Comenst fighting at daylight kept up a sharp shooting all day very little damage done to us".(26)

18-"Just before day … I was detailed with others to go on picket duty about seventy-five yards down in front of our lines. I had been sick all night and was really in no condition to go, but this was no time to falter, so I went. Right down there on the picket line I had about the worst time I ever experienced. Our officer scattered us along about seventy-five yards apart. When day began to appear the Yankees began to shoot at us. I discovered a big pine stump near my post and I proceeded to get behind it. Then I was not safe as they could see me and commenced to cross fire on me. I saw that it was a bad proposition so I laid on my stomach and with my bayonet would dig up the sand and shove it out at each side and push the rest down with my feet and finally got a respectable war grave dug. I was still very sick suffering from diarrhoea and I was sleepy. The Yankees were still pegging away at me, a ball would strike the stump or a shell burst near me and wake me up but I would fall asleep as quickly as I would wake, so I laid there in the hot sun until about the middle of the afternoon when I saw if I staid until night there would be a dead Rebel and he would have his grave already dug for him so I concluded to attempt to run back to the breastworks, about seventy-five rods up hill. You can imagine how sick I was to attempt such a dangerous trip for I was safe from Yankee bullets behind that stump. Well, I lit out as fast as I could run and every Yankee in sight took a shot at me. The bullets would zip by me and hit the ground but I kept pulling for the shore and when I got to breastworks I just simply fell over them down among the boys and not a scratch on me."

"Soon after that the officer on picket duty was driven in and he had 18 bullet holes through his blanket but came out with a whole hide. A Lieutenant-Colonel was killed just on our right. Our regiment was not engaged but on our right they had it hot and heavy."(May 3)

4- Col. S. S. Stanton was killed while deploying his lines.(#21)

3-May 15-"Some fighting before day heavy fighting on our right".(26)

3-May 16-"Still fighting all around the lines some of our Brig. was killed to day. We left Resacken in the night. All of us with drew our selves from the brestworks and marched all night. We are all very quiet and much worn out. encamped near Calhoun. We stade at that place and left at 2 oclock A.M.".(26)

3-May 17-"Left Calhoun at daylight kept up a sharp shooting all day very little damage done to us".(26)

4-Adairsville-"We threw down a fence & piled the rails in front of us to protect our heads from shots from small arms. A Grape shot struck the pile in front of me & a rail hit Sam Worthington by my side & came near killing him, but he banged away, & he never flickered". Quarles' Brigade reenforced the Sixteenth.(#22)

3-May 18-"All of our army is falling back. I came to Cartersville and brought the Colonel to the wagons he is quite sick".(26)

3-May 19-"All on the move today".(26)

5-At Cassville, after Johnston had decided to withdraw his army, Cheatham withdrew his division by the right of brigades to the rear, and when they halted, conducted a half wheel turn which put them into line of battle while shots and shells were flying.(24)

3-May 20-"Left Cartersville at 11 oclock came to Ackworth encampt at night".(26)

3-May 21-"Left Ackworth 9 oclock a.m. came 4 miles encamped near big shanty some little fighting today".(26)

3-May 22-"Still at this place".(26)

3-May 23-"Left at 11 oclock traveled 13 miles. We came through poor country".(26)

3-May 24-"Left at sun up came 9 miles encamped near Atlanta Ga. All is quiet".(26)

3-May 25-"Left at sun up came 7 miles encamped near Atlanter".(26)

5-May 25-Henry C. Tate, of Co. A, and Andrew Sailors, of Co. K, were killed and a number wounded at New Hope Church.(25)

5-Near Dallas, Lt. Owens was wounded while the 16th acted as rear guard in a skirmish in and around an Octagon shaped house.(23)

3-May 26-"Still at this place ...".(26)

3-May 27-"Some little fighting".(26)

3-May 28-"A heavy picketing some of our men was wound and one was killed".(26)

3-May 29-"The yankes assaulted our works last night at 9 oclock tho was repulst with heavy loss. the fight continued most all night".(26)

3-June 2-"All quiet in our regt. some fighting on our left".(26)

3-June 3-"Our men have got their brestworks done".(26)

3-June 5-"We left camps at 5 P.M. came 8 miles. It rained all night and so dark you could not see to travel".(26)

3-June 6-"At daylight went out and formed a line of battle".(26)

3-June 9-"We was order to move today moved a little came back to the same place all quiet at night".(27)

3-June 11-"All quiet with us today. Orders to move we move 1 mile".(27)

3-June 14-"The rain has seased and the bords are on the wing. This has been a day of solemn feeling with us as our old faithful general Polk was shot through the heart with a shell. He and General Johnston, Hardee and Bates and Jackson was upon pine mountain viewing the position of the enemy. The enemy fired some shots at the bunch of men and unfortunately killed Polk. 2 oclock we move out to pine mountain to support Bates Div. formed in line of battle and built brestworks".(27)

3-June 15-"Left Pine mountain 2 a.m. came one mile and formed line of battle".(27)

3-June 16-"Heavy skirmishing ...".(27)

5-June 16-The regiment lost William Lowry, of Co. E, and Samuel Baker, of Co. I, at Lost Mountain.(25)

3-June 17-"We have been fighting some today and have moved our lines of battle. Gen. Polk of Clabern Div. was wounded today in the lage".(27)

4-"We were getting ragged & never got a chance to was our rags except to wade into creek, river or pond- pull off, rub & scrub without soap, wrince the best we could, wade out, put them on wet & be ready for any order."(#22)

5-Watson Cantrell would cook the rations in the rear, and bring them aboard wagons to the men near the front. It rained steadily from the 18th of June through the 21st.(25)

3-June 22-"It has cleard off and looks very nice. Heavy skirmishing in front".(27)

3-June 24-"Heavy skirmishing in front. Some of our Division was wounded and a few were killed. The weather is quite warm".(27)

5-Skirmishing continued to grow in intensity through the 25th and 26th of June.(26)

4-The Sixteenth had pickets stationed at the western foot of Kennesaw Mt.. They engaged troops on the Marietta Road until cannonfire forced them to withdraw.(#22)

4-Andy Youngblood lost a finger while pointing at a battery, to a Yankee picket's stray ball.(#23)

3-June 27-"There has been a good deal of fighting today. Cheatham and Claborn give the yankes a good whiping".(27)

4-Kennasaw Mountain-Co. I was stationed next to the brigade battery on the day of the fight at dead angle.(#22)

5-June 27-Joshua W. Carter, of Co. C, is killed and several others wounded or captured on the picket line prior to the fight.(26)

4-About midnight one night, near the end of June, a brigade on the 16th's left fired a volley of musketry, and many of the men became very excited, expecting a fight. Shortly thereafter, the firing ceased and all was quiet along the line. The next morning when the men inquired of the firing, they were told a brigade had fired on lightning bugs.(#22)

3-July 3-"Our men left here after night".(27)

3-July 8-"Our men crossed the Chattahoochey river".(27)

5-The men dug in on the southern side of the Chattahootchie River and skirmished until the 17th of July.(26)

3-July 13-"Some skirmishing today".(28)

4-Chattahoochie River-Along the Chattahootchie, in the hot July sun, sometimes, men of the Sixteenth that were on picket duty would call a truce with the Yankee pickets across the river. They would then move down to the shade of the trees on the banks to get relief from the hot rays of the sun, and escape the heat of the dug outs. "Finally some fellow would yell out, 'rats to your holes' and all would do their very best to get back to the pit before the enemy."(#23)

18-"We got very friendly there and frequently some would cross over and do a lot of trading. The currency was coffee on the Yankee side and tobacco on the Rebel side. We would trade for U. S. stamps as we could send mail around by Richmond and Washington to our folks back in the territory occupied by the Federal army. The way we did was to get a small flat rock, tie on a piece of tobacco and throw it across the river. The Yankees would wade out in the water and pick it up if it fell short. I was the only one on our side who could throw across the river and there was a red faced, red headed Yankee who was left handed who could throw over to our side. I remember on one occasion I put a piece of tobacco on a rock and threw it over saying ‘This is for the officer.’ And the soldier that for it took it to the officer. I saw him pull out a long book that he carried his papers in and handed the fellow five stamps. The red headed fellow threw them over to me."

18-"One day while I was on picket there a handsome young fellow swam over. He was a fine fellow and I would be awful glad to meet him again. He came over on a trading expedition and while he was on our side I got in conversation with him. I told him I had a mother back in Tennessee who had not heard from me in a long time and asked him if he would mail a letter for me. He said he would and I wrote to my mother and he took it with him. On the way back he was so heavily loaded that he nearly drowned. We got him back and one of the boys went about a quarter of a mile and got a rail and he then made it all right. When the war was over and I got home I found the letter all right. He had mailed it as he said he would."(May 3)

18-"After our young Yankee got across the river all right we staid there doing picket duty several days, talking and having a good time generally. I remember on one occasion that I had a newspaper and was sitting in a square place that had been cut down to get our pontoons when I looked across and saw a Yankee. We had orders to fire at everything in sight that day. I would wave the paper and he would run a little ways and stop, then I would wave the paper and he would run again, then some of our soldiers up the river opened fire on him and if ever a Yankee run, he did, and got back all right. I never thought I treated him wrong. Our officers inquired about it and knew that somebody had done something to cause him to run down toward where I was, but they never found out what it was."(May 24)

18-"The relief would come on [in the] evenings and each side would tell the other side to hunt their holes until they found out what the orders were. If everything was O.K. we would come out from our holes and be as friendly as ever. If not we whacked away at each other the best we knew how."(May 24)

3-July 18-"We move to Atlanta went out on Peachtree street".(28)

18-"… fell back in front of Atlanta where we threw up breastworks. We had quite a lot of Georgia militia and would put them in the front breastworks to relieve the old soldiers. It seemed that each mess of them had a negro servant to cook. I remember seeing the negroes go to the front with cooked rations and some of them would hold a frying pan in front of their heads to keep the minie balls from puncturing their heads."(May 24)

18-"I was acting Sergeant Major and had to get up the picket force for each evening. One evening while the pickets were coming in to be sent out a Yankee battery sent a shell right over among us. It exploded not over twenty-five feet in front of us and broke the thigh of one man and tore the flesh from the calf of the leg of another. I tore the suspenders off each one and put around their legs, put a stick in it and twisted it to stop the flow of blood. A piece of shell struck a stake that was stuck up in [the] breastworks and a splinter struck me on the arm. I was afraid to look at it for fear my arm was gone. One of the men died that night and the other some time afterward at the hospital."(May 24)

8-"The soldiers were all very much pleased when Gen. Johnston took command, and sorry when he was superseded by Gen. Hood. This was certainly a fatal mistake. There was no comparison between the military abilities of the two men, and the army knew and felt it."(344)

4-When Hood took command of the army, many troops were upset. Clark later wrote, "The change never took well with us, and sorrow, gloom & discouragement ran high."(#23)

18-"General Hood was in command of the Army of Tennessee at this time and if anything was ever out of all sorts it was the Army of Tennessee. Old Joseph E. Johnston looked after his men and did not run them into any unnecessary engagements. Hood would fight at the drop of the hat and drop it himself, so he thought he would show Sherman a few things out of the ordinary."(May 31)

4-July 20-"On the 20th our division & Cleburne's were formed in line of battle and ordered forward, & on reaching the top of a hill we could see the Yanks in their trenches a little way from the foot of the hill."(#23)

4-"The order to flank to the right was not heard by 2 or 3 of us & we pressed forward to the foot of the hill."(#23)

4-Clark and Sam Worthington fired 60 rounds that evening, and fell back that night after silencing the enemy's battery with Ben Lack and Jim Martin.(#23)

18-"I felt very sorry for a Yankee officer who had been wounded and was lying in an exposed position, and could not get to a place of safety. He was lying about ten steps inside of the works and just behind us, and the shells and minie balls were making it hot for us. He called to us and asked us to please come and get him down in the ditch where we were, so I started out to bring him in but one of our officers told me to come back and I had to let him lie in his dangerous position. I never knew how he came out. I ran upon a wounded Dutchman and he was doing a whole lot of Dutch talk. I offered him a drink of water from my canteen and he would shake his head. He might have been cussing me for all I knew. We held the works that we captured until after night but just across a draw further up their line they held part of the works. I ventured out in front of our line to see what I could find and run up on a dead Rebel and got me a good hat and a few shirts out of the Yankee knapsacks and then went back into our lines."(May 31)

5-R. M. Safley was severely wounded, shot through the lungs, and Lt. John Akeman, also of Co. C, was killed by four mortal wounds. A. J. Agent, of Co. I, was also killed on the field.(27)

3-"Liet. J. D. Brown was wounded sevier in the grind many others was hurt".(28)

3-July 21-"We shift our line of battle move further on the right wing we are much worn out".(28)

4-"On the 22nd we were double quicked from place to place finally marched through Atlanta, & on Eastwardly a short distance & formed in line of Battle."(#24)

4-"Before starting forward, our General rode in front of us & told us that we had retreated far enough, that we would find the Yanks in their breastworks, but that we would whip them & go back to old Tennessee." Upon hearing this speech many of the men cheered and appeared to be eager for the fight.(#24)

4-"We went forward & soon found them entrenched, but they 'gave way' and we found them again, in their 2nd line of works, but we drove them back to their 3rd & last line, & when in a few yards of their last line I rec'd a severe wound in my arm, which sent me to the rear." Clark straggled back looking for a field hospital, coming to a branch, he bathed his arm to ease the pain. "In going back I passed dead & dying among whom was Jim Biles of McMinnville. He called for water & I gave it to him from my canteen. I thought that he would be dead in a short time." Clark rinsed his arm at the branch, but when going to fill his canteen, he found that a straggler had stolen it. "I soon found the hospital, where the wounded were being taken for treatment. The doctors were amputating legs & feet, arms, hands & fingers & dressing wounds. Dr. Leek examined my arm, dressed it & gave me a drink of whiskey. I was tired & sleepy, but the cries & moans of the wounded kept me from rest but in a short while I took a nap.(#24)

4-Jack Agent of Co. I was killed.(#24)

5-Grundy Gibbs was killed, Wright S. Hackett died of a mortal wound, and J. C. Biles recieved two serious wounds.(27)

6/7-J. P. Smartt was wounded but did not retire from the field.

18-"… I was on the battle ground several days after that and could see parts of soldiers sticking out of the ditches where they were buried. I don’t know who buried them. I saw the worst shot man there that I ever saw. A cannon ball cut him entirely in two except a little strip of skin on each side. General McPherson, a union general, was killed here."(May 31)

18-"I well remember the night Sherman threw shells into the city. I was lying down and could see the fuses burning and hear the shells burst in town and we could hear the fire department out putting out fires. Most every family in town lived underground and one could see the stovepipes protruding from the ground. The shells from Sherman’s batteries had been falling in the city for some time and ‘bomb proofs’ were all over the city."(May 24)

3-Aug 18-"There is some men killed or wounded in our brigade every day".(28)

3-Aug 19-"May God protect me from such an awful fate or ever seeing another such seen. The only brother that I had with me was shot by the inhuman enemy. He was on picket and was shot in the back of the head cutting his brains out. I could never describe my feeling when I saw him. He was sensible of everything. I went with him to distribeting hospital. I begged the Dr. to let me go with him down soth to hospital. I could not git to go with him when I knew he could not live long".(29)

18-"We got short of lead here and the officers employed the soldiers to pick up balls that were scattered in the rear where the Yankees had fired at our pickets."(May 24)

18-"While we were in the trenches at Atlanta the authorities gave so much a pound for minie balls picked up in the rear of our main line, as our ammunition was running short and we wanted to send them back the first chance we got. Those that were whole did not have to be moulded again. Some of the men made good wages picking them up. When we would be in line of battle or in the ditches when some part of our army would be engaged at some part of the line the soldiers would write letters to friends on the line to find out whether any of our acquaintances was killed or wounded. We would get a small stick about six inches long and split one end far enough to put the envelope in, then take a string and tie it around the split end to hold it secure, then toss it where we wanted it to go. Some one would toss it again and so on until it reached its destination. I have got an answer the same day."(June 28)

3-Aug 21-"My brother died. I hope he is at rest with his God".(29)

3-Aug 24-"Yankes disapear from our front. our boys go into their brestworks".(29)

18-"I was on picket here one night and just before daylight we believed the Yankees had left our front. Another soldier and myself started out to see if it was so. We would walk a little distance and listen, then go on a little further and listen again. We kept on that way until we got to their breastworks and they were sure enough gone. We got to their works about the break of day and looked around a while to see if any stragglers were left, but everybody was gone. On going back to our picket post I saw more signs of shooting than I ever saw before. Between the picket posts the bullets had cut down saplings as large as a man’s leg, it would lodge and then be cut in two again and if the limbs and brush had been blown out of the way a team and wagon could have been driven through the woods anywhere. After I returned to my regiment that morning I reported what I had seen and we commenced to get out of there and change our position."(May 24)

3-Aug 25-"We leve Atlanta came 4 miles encamped at Poplar Springs".(29)

3-Aug 27-"Move to Est point. Build fortifications".(29)

18-"We had a large cannon on a handcar and one day our regiment was in front of it about a hundred yards, when it fired and the shell went right over us, it made a noise like a turkey flying, landed over in Yankeedom and exploded. It shook things up in great shape. It was reported that one shell killed nearly a whole company. There was only one discharge of the gun while we were in front of it. A piece of the band around the bomb broke off and killed a lieutenant in our regiment. We were moved somewhere else after that."(May 24)

3-Aug 28-"Our men went out on a scout".(29)

18- Perhaps this is the scout on which Carden with a small detachment of men captured a Yankee Lieutenant who had had too much whiskey and lost his way.(May 24)

3-Aug 29-"Left this place for Jonesboro".(29)

3-Aug 30-"We stop and rest some".(29)

3-Aug 31-"We come down to Jonesboro form a line of battle and attack the enemy at 2 oclock P.M. It was a hard fight. We drove them on the left tho could not move them on the right. many men were lost on both sides. night has come the wery has laid him down to rest, the wounded to die".(29)

3-Sept 1-"This has been a day of distress. The enemy flanked us on our right and we have to move to keep them from giting in our rear. We comest fighting at 3 oclock. Hardees Corps fought 3 hours after having a hard and severe fight the enemy flanked us on both sides. We left at 9 oclock p.m. came to Lovejoy Station 7 miles".(29)

3-Sept 2-"Formed a line of battle and fortified the enemy moved up to us at 3 p.m.".(29)

3-Sept 3-"They are picket fighting".(29)

3-Sept 4-"Heavy commandering, some few men killed".(29)

3-Sept 5-"Joe Brown of 16 Regt. was killed and Henry Paine of our company was mortale wounded".(29)

5-"I was wounded in this action. No hospital was available and no litter bearer was available to carry me from the front. Finally, I was able to crawl further back and managed to prop myself behind a stump. When fighting closed, each army was in its original position. Although both sides had used heavy cannon, casualties were comparatively light. A friend came to me as soon as he could and gave me what meager first aid was available. He and another man carried me to a section of ground where rows of other casualties already lay. They said a doctor would come. After hours of painful waiting, the one doctor came and, harried and exhausted though he was, he did for me what he could. He kindly apologized that he could do no more and could spend no more time per patient. We understood."(28)

3-Sept 7-"The enemy leave our front".(29)

3-Sept 8-"We move back in direction of Atlanta 5 miles".(29)

3-Sept 10-"It is the first time the cooking detale has been up in 4 months".(29)

3-Sept 15-"There is much talk of consolidation. There is much dissatisfaction in the command".(29)

6/9- "After the battle of July 22, east of Atlanta, he [Col. J. H. Anderson] was placed in command of three consolidated regiments-the Eighth, Sixteenth, and Twenty-Eighth."(356) (PHOTO)

5-About this time, the regiment was ordered to consolidate its companies. "Companies A, D and E were consolidated and placed under the command of Captain Frank M. York. Companies B, C and H were put under the consolidated command of Captain John Lucus Thompson. Companies F, G, I and K were consolidated and commanded by Captain Ad Fisk. Left out officers were placed on a list of supernumeraries. Other regiments were also consolidated. The 8th, 16th and 28th Regiments now became one under the command of Colonel John H. Anderson."(28)

3-Sept 19-"Up at 3 a.m. leave at 4 a.m. We travel very slow for some distance came through good country some very poor. Traveled all day. camped at midnight after a march of 20 miles".(29)

3-Sept 20-"We are near Palmetto Station on Westpoint Ralerode".(29)

3-Sept 21-"Move out and form in line of fight and fortify".(29)

3-Sept 30-"Leave at 8 A.M. traveld 15 miles. encamped near the Chattahoucha river".(30)

3-Oct 1-"Marched 14 miles encamped".(30)

3-Oct 2-"Took up march at 6 a.m.".(30)

3-Oct 3-"Came 18 miles encamped late in the evening".(30)

3-Oct 4-"All the supervision officers was sent to the rear".(30)

3-Oct 5 thru 31-"I have not had the chance to record my march from the 4th up to Tuscumby Ala. We have been on a very active campaign. I have underwent many hard ships. My trip has been quite interesting. came over a variety of country. Some fine lands. some very poore the people allso very poore. They are in destitute circumstances. I dont see how they live espeshly those who are so very poor. I came to Jacksonville Ala. with the wagon train this place is in ten miles of the Blue mountains the rale rod came to Blew mountain and stops. I remained at this place some 8 days. We left this place and rejoined our army at Gadsden Ala. This is a little town on the Coosa river. It lies on the North side of the river. At this place we drew some clothing. At this place the wagon train was sepparated again. I came along with the baggage train. I had quite and easy time. I rode most all the way in a wagon. The country we came through the first two days was a fine one. The people was living very well after the first two days march we came to Lincoln county Ala. It is a pore country and the citens are of union sentiments. We came through the town of Ashville and it semd to be a very unsound place. We now strike Blunt Mountain which is very steep and rough. It is Blount county, the native spot where our old friend Brad Robbers was brought up. At this place we remain one day and two nights. waiting for the sply train to cross. We had to role wagons up the mount. all night. I was much worn out when we got up the mountain. After crossing over the mountain we came through Blountsville the country sete of Blount county. We now come to sand Mount a barren and very poor country. Nobody much lives on it. After we cross the mountain we come to some good country. traveled one day after crossing the mount encamped in a pritty country. We allso found the people generoushearted and that has not been common where we havwe come from here to Tuscumby Ala. We travel through a beautiful spot of the world. You can cast your eyes around you as far as you can see lands are lying uncultivated, houses burned up negros all gone save some poor old crippled one who could not get away or the enemy would not have. Not enough of corn growing on those level and rich soils to bred what few wimen and children from suffering. It is a sorrowful looking sene to look at. I hope the people may soon be at peace and cultivate those lands again. We joined our army again at Tuscumby, a town on the Memphus and Charlston rale rod, some fore miles from the river. I think often of this desolated part of the country. I wonder how the people live in my country in Warren county. I arrived at this place the last day of October".(30)

18-Oct 13-While Etter moved with the baggage wagons, Carden continued on with the web-foot infantry. Arriving in front of Federal positions at Dalton, Georgia and following the surrender of the fort and a regiment of Colored infantry late in the afternoon, Carden rushed forward to wreak the fruits of victory. "Everybody was hurrying around and the negroes were about half drunk. I saw a negro with a bottle of whiskey and told him to hand it over, which he did. I felt so elated over my capture that I showed it to one of our officers and he took it away from me and I did not get even a taste of it. The fort was built around a big house, a hotel I think, and I went in and up to the second story and saw a lot of Yankee officers. They were talking about having to go to prison. I ran across one of our generals and he ordered me out of there but I just kept out of his sight and stayed as long as I wanted to. We did about as we pleased and when night came I saw that a detail was ordered to go into the fort and bring out the sutler’s stores that were there. I went up to the officer in charge and told him to roll me out something. He eyed me closely and said, ‘Of course, or I wouldn’t be there,’ and he hand me a box of raisins and a box of ground pepper, and by the time I had hurried to my company and gave the boxes to the boys of my mess and got back the detail had moved the balance. I run up against a fellow who had got about half a sack of coffee and he asked me and another fellow to help him take it out the back way. We helped him in a neighborly way but by the time we were out we had filled our haversacks with his coffee. There was nothing more to do in the fort so we were marched down to the railroad and went to fixing it. We would rip up the iron and make pens out of the ties, then lay the irons across the pens and set the pile on fire, and when the irons got hot each end would bend to the ground. We had the negroes helping us and one smart negro refused to help burn the ties and he got a minie ball through him. The rest of them were alright after that."(May 31)

3-Nov 1-"I found most all the boys well though very tired from hard marching and not much to eat. Jeremiah Hill and T. H. Lynn of the 16th regt. is thought to be gone home".(30)

3-Nov 3-"We are looking for some clothing. They are much needed. The men are in destute circumstances many barefooted and have no pants".(31)

3-Nov 4-"I drew some clothing to day 19 pr. of shoes, 9 pr. of cotton pants 20 pr. of cotton socks. 31 jackets. The clothing is to be divided to 150 men and most ever man needs something very bad. I dont see how we are going to get clothing this winter although we are in good spirits and yet look forward to the time our independence will be declard by many nations".(31)

3-Nov 6-"We drew some blankets and a few jackets. I got some 13 blankets, 4 jackets 1 pr of socks".(31)

3-Nov 7-"The pioneer company made a brig over the creek and the creek rose so fast that it washed away".(31)

3-Nov 9-"The pioneer company made a brig over the creek the troops crost at night it rained very hard at night most all got wuite wet. I did not git wet tho I got mudy as I could get. left camps at 9 oclock p.m. came 2 miles".(31)

3-Nov 11-"We move at daylight in the direction of the river. come one mile encamp in one mile of the Tennessee river and expect to cross as soon as the pontoon bridge can be fixed across".(31)

3-Nov 12-"I went down to the river to see it. I found it quite flush. I walked acrosse the river. The bridge is nearly redy to cross the wagons over".(31)

3-Nov 13-"Move to the river and stop some hour move over the bridge at noon. the town of Florence is on both sides of the river. There was much rejoicing among the Tenn. boys. They have land on the North side of the river. Came one mile from the river encamped in nice grove of lumber on cypress creek. The boys are much rejoyed at being on the North side of the Tenn. reiver".(31)

3-Nov 14-"Orders came to go and fortifie the town of Florence Ala. the day has been quite pleasant".(31)

3-Nov 15-We drew some cloth last night. I drew a cotton pair of pants. We do not more than git enough to eat".(31)

3-Nov 16-"I visited one mans turnip patch. One among the finest I ever saw there was turnips that would weigh some 12 pounds. The jentleman that ond the place was by the name of Keef. He give away 3/4 of the patch to the solgers".(31)

3-Nov 17-"Cooked those turnips that I got yesterday. It was a splendid mess. We cooked them with a beef tong an beef feet. It is the only thing that I have eat enough since I have been at this place. The wether is bad".(31)

3-Nov 19-"I left camps at daylight. packt one half bushel of corn some 4 miles but the gard would not let me go to the mill. I came back to town and swap my corn for meal. I give two measures for one. I allso got my breakfast. return to camp wet and mudy".(32)

3-Nov 21-"Left camp 8 a.m. I came on ahead to the place where I swaped some more corn for meal. I made the exchang. I allson got a good meals victuals. Chicken pie, irish potatoes preserves. It comest snowing erley in the morning. snowed very fast. The wind blew very hard it was very cold. I allmost froze. We came 12 miles. I dont think I ever seen the rods wers in my life".(32)

3-Nov 22-"Our command move back near Florence Ala. for the perpos of garden a splytrain they returned to camp on the same ground they did the night previous. I did not go It snowed for some time. Last night was excesive cold. I slept very cold. The ground some 5 inches in the night. We had to ly in the open are. We left camp at daylight my berd froze on my face. We crossed the Tennessee line at 8 a.m. we crossed into some hilley country and some good lands to some very poor. Marched 21 miles camped at dark 8 miles from Wansbor. It is very cold night".(32)

3-Nov 23-"Marched hard all day."(32)

3-Nov 24-"Marched at daylight. I came by Wansbor I found the cooking detail The brigad is 3 hours ahead of me. I overtake it at dark. I marched 20 miles".(32)

3-Nov 25-"We have done without something to eat 2 days. We drew 1/2 pound of flower, one pound of beef. I am very hungry".(32)

3-Nov 26-"Left at daylight. Marched hard through a hilley country. ... We travel through Mont Plesant passed General Piller home. ... It rained all day the pike was very mudy. encamped at night one mile and a half of Collumby. The yankees are at this place. There has been some men wounded. We march 20 miles. It is raining at night".(32)

3-Nov 27-"Most every person wet. Some of our men are out on picket. We remain until 3 oclock p.m. Howers Corps move in to our camps. We move 2 miles on the wright encamp".(32)

3-Nov 28-"We are ordered to move at a moments warning. The teams have been geard up all day move at suset".(32)

3-Nov 29-"Moved at daylight up Duck River some 2 miles and crossed, marched very hard all day over hills and hollows marched a round the enemy. We came nigh cuting off the enemy. Tho we was one hour too late. We did not get posesion of the Nashville pike in time there was some fighting at Spring Hill allso some on the north side of Duck river opposite Collumby. I don't think I ever seen a harder march than the one we made today. We marched 17 miles over a rough country with out any rode to march in. none of our boys was hurt today. I lay myself down at midnight to rest a little".(32)

3-Nov 30-"We move at sun up in pursuit of the enemy they must of been demorilized. The burnt up wagon killed mules and destroyed much property. We marched very rapterly. Came in sight of the enemy 3 oclock p.m. formed a line of battle moved on them met them one mile from town. The fight comest one hour by sun. It was one of the most desparat of the war. We found them in strong works our men charged their works. they fought hand to hand. The enemy was very stubern. They nocked our men down with their guns. Our men cared the first two lines of works thugh they did not move them from the third line. We fought most all night. At midnight the enemy comest retreeting. They was pursude very closely".(32-3)

18-"… I suppose and believe that Frankin was one of the hottest battles of the war. I was not in the battle myself but had arrived on the hill south of Franklin when I saw the battle begin. It was fought about two miles from where we were and we never got into the engagement."(June 7)

3-Dec 1-"Daylight has come. there is no enemy near us. We now look for ded and wounded which are many. Oh how bad I feel to look at my comrades torn to peaces by those missels of deth. One of my old company was killed ded, a man whom we all loved, John Brown. He nobley faught for his coutry. He must be long remembered by his old comrades. Our old regiment lost 15 men killed ded. Lt. Pettet, Lt. Green, J. B. Womack. A. J. Kessey, June Driver, Howerd Canterel, Wm. Willhte, Wm. Thomson, George Donnel, Aaron Pepper, C. M. Jordan, John Brown, Thomas Hooper, Samuel Lusk. We bury our ded today they are all beryed side by side and each grave marked. It is a horable thought to think of the many friend we leve in the battle field. The enemys loss was very heavy. We killed a great many. The ground was covered with blew coats. We have got our men all buried. We now take a little rest as we have not taken any in two days and nights".(33)

18-"I went up to where our lines had fallen back to and formed near the Carter house the next morning and saw what had been done the evening before. The Yankees had retreated toward Nashville during the night and left their dead and wounded on the field. I never saw as many dead as were on the ground in front of the Yankee breastworks. There was a locust thicket in front of their works and I counted 19 balls that had hit one sapling from the ground to the height of a man’s head. These were shots from the Yankee side, but at the Carter house there was a small brick building, I don’t know what it was used for, which was struck by over 100 balls. … This house was inside the Yankee lines and these shots were fired by the Rebels."(June 7)

18-"Just inside the works at the Carter house, I think it was the next morning after the battle I saw a Yankee officer who had been wounded, I don’t know how badly but he looked kind of glum as he had not got in good humor since the battle. I asked him if I could do anything for him and he looked at me as though he would like to kill me. I told him it would be a pleasure to me to help him in any way I could and he said I could give him a drink of water which I did. I saw another poor fellow who was still out in the breastworks. I think from his uniform he was an artilleryman. He was sitting with both hands up holding his face, his eyes were about closed and his face had a greenish color."(June 7)

3-Dec 2-"Leve Franklin 9 a.m. march hard all day. at night camp in sight of capital of Tenn. I am very tired to night".(33)

3-Dec 3-"We dont get any bred to day. Move out to form a line of battle neat the Murfreesbourgh pike. The yankees shell us."

18-"… the first afternoon several of us went up on a hill in a clearing where we could see Fort Negly. We were about two and a half miles from the fort and were standing around looking at it when we saw a puff of smoke shoot up from the fort, and someone remarked that they were shooting at us. We finally concluded that we were mistaken about it, but soon after that here it came and about that time its mate barked and we left there before it landed."(June 7)

3-Dec 4-"Some picket fighting some very heavy shells. It is very cold. There is a large circle around the moon tonight".(33)

3-Dec 5-"All quiet today".(33)

18-Carden ventured out in front of the lines to investigate Gov. Brown’s ‘fine brick residence’. There he found a big Missouri Yankee, posted as protection, Mrs. Brown and her daughter. The Yankee stated that under the circumstances he should be left alone according to the rules of war. Carden agreed, and he stood and talked with the ladies and the soldier for some time. On his departure and ascending a slope, he saw a bunch of Yankees gathered around a fire and got back to his lines in short order.(June 7)

3-Dec 6-"Wind blew very hard all day. also very cold".(33)

3-Dec 7-"Comest raining to turn in to a sleet and snow very cold. I am barefooted".(33)

3-Dec 8-"There is snow some 2 inches deep and there is excesive cold".(33)

18-"We had to stay on picket duty two hours, then go back and thaw out."(June 14)

3-Dec 9-"It is still very cold. Some little snow. I almost froze last night".(33)

3-Dec 10-"I went today to git some planks to build me a shell. We git orders to move at 2 p.m. The ground is froze and sheted over with ice. We camp where there is not much would. I went to get some straw to ly on. I think the night is cold as I have seen in my life".(33)

3-Dec 11-"This is one of the coldest mornings I ever saw. We lay unpertected all night. I would have been sory for my dum bruts at home although I am out in it. It is cloudy and looks like snowing more".(33)

3-Dec 12-"....we dont git more than half rations".(33)

14-Dec. 13-Major Henry Hampton’s roster for Cheatham’s Corps listed Carter’s Brigade commanded by Col. Hume R. Field. Organizational breakdown was as follows:

Unit Commander Effective total Total Present

1st/27th Tennessee LtCol. J.L. House 121 201

4th (P.A.), 6th/9th /50th Tenn. LtCol. G.W. Pease 275 392

8th/16th/28th Tennessee Col. J.H. Anderson 258 359

Brigade Total: 654 952

3-Dec 14-"It rained all last night. This morning so fogy you could not see a man fifty yards.. There was an old man from Warren county came in last night by the name of Pursen. he did not know anything about my folks".(33)

3-Dec 15-"Our command is ordered out in line of battle some heavy shelling and picket fighting."(33)

3- Our command was ordered to the left wing we got there at dark. We did not do much fighting though we checked the move of the enemy. We fortified after dark".(33)

3-Dec 16-"Fight comest quiet heavy at daylight. Our comand held its position all day untill on hour by sun. at that time our lines got confused."(33)

18-"Our company was on a little round hill. We could not see the Yankees in our front on account of the timber and brush but we could see to our right nearly a mile. Now and then some Yankee cavalry would run in behind us and some of our command would get after them and run them back, but they would keep getting in our rear. That position was the only one I was ever in that a fellow could not get behind a tree."(June 14)

6/5-"We had been continually extending to the left until our line was but little more than a thin line of skirmishers. Our last move brought us on top of a slight hill in the woods, where we formed a line of battle. In a few moments we saw two Federal officers ride up on top of a high hill in front of us and point to our lines. We suspected what was coming, and were not long kept in suspense. A battery soon opened on us with shell. We could see but a short distance to our right, but we could hear enough to convince us that they were having trouble over there also. In the meantime the battery was getting our range down to a fine point. The boys would naturally dodge as they began to get closer to us. Lieut. Col. Harris was in command, and he would storm out at us for dodging."

18-"Late in the afternoon the Yankees charged our works about a half a mile to our right, in full view of our position and some of them broke through our lines. Right then things began to happen. The break in our lines widened as the Yankees pressed forward and they never stopped but kept right on."(June 14)

6/5-"Just then one of the men called out, 'Look yonder, Colonel!' pointing to our left and rear, showing an old field full of Yankees marching around us. The Colonel never thought any more about dodging shells, but yelled out, 'Boys, every fellow for himself!' and we went."

18-"There was a big hill just ahead of them and our officers told us to fall back, which we did in a hurry, every man taking care of himself."(June 14)

3-"Bates Div. lines give way our army become demoralized. The enemy cut off our Division and it had to come out through the enemys lines. Most all the boys got out safe, not many captured. It was raining hard and it was very mudy. we could not find any command together."(34)

18-"After the Yankees broke our lines on our right they came right on until they got to the foot of the hill. Then they would go to forming on their colors. While that was going on the cavalry came in our rear and we had to run right through a lane of them. I never saw one of my company after we started back. When I got to the foot of the hill I started up it as fast as I could go. A fellow would be shot near me and fall and roll down the hill and I was thinking all the time that it would be my turn next. Had got to within about twenty steps of the top my left foot stopped a minie ball. It cut a hole through the leather of my shoe and sock and to the bone and stopped. I thought it was Kattis with me and threw down my gun and cartridge box and went on the best I could. Darkness soon overtook me and I finally came to the pike leading to Columbia, when I got on a caisson that came by. The drivers never saw me the whole night. I rode on the caisson till morning and my foot was so painful that I could hardly walk. The Yankees simply whipped us to a frazzle and that’s a fact."(June 14)

3-" I got to Franklin at sunup the 17th."(34)

3-Dec 17-"We are in Franklin at this place we draw something to eat as we are very hungry. Leeve Franklin at 10 oclock came 9 miles encamped".(34)

3-Dec 18-"We move at daylight. came to Rulaford creek at this place we stop to fight the enemy. It rained all day".(34)

3-Dec 19-"It rained as hard as it can. The wind is very cold. At night we move across Duck river. encamped 1 1/2 miles from Collumba".(34)

4-Finally in December, Clark had recovered enough to join the men once again. He found them cold and ragged at Columbia, Tennessee. That night, he doubtless heard the stories of the bloody campaign from Ad Fisk and Sgt. Jo. Cummings with whom he shared a dog fly. Several survivors of the Sixteenth chose to leave for home at this point.(#25)

3-Etter and several others, got passes to visit home, and left the army in route for their homes east of Columbia.(34)

18-"When we retreated to Columbia a lot of us got permission to visit our homes. We started early in the morning. There were about ten in the bunch. I was in bad shape to walk but I hobbled along as best I could. When we got out from our camp we got the direction to Tullahoma and took a straight course, regardless of roads. We did not want to travel the roads as we might come in contact with the Yankee cavalry. We got along alright, stopping with people at night."

6/8-December 20-Hood issued orders at Columbia, Tennessee to establish a substancial rear guard for the continued withdrawal toward the Tennessee River. N. B. Forrest had held off the Federal pursuit up to that time with very little organized infantry support. Forrest was to be in over all command with an estimated three thousand infantry in support under command of Walthall. Hood had given him permission to hand pick eight brigades for this hazardous and heroic task. The brigades were picked and temporarily consolidated to form four severely understrength brigades. The brigades and commands were as follows:

Brigade Commands Commanding Officer Effective Strength

MGen Walthall

Featherston's & Quarles' BGen Featherson 498

Ector's & Reynolds' BGen Reynolds 528

Strahl's & Maney's Colonel H. R. Field 298

Smith's & Palmer's Colonel J. B. Palmer 297

Total: 1,621

"The command will stand in line-- Featherston on the right, then Field, Palmer, and Reynolds, in the order named."

9-The field returns for Cheatham's Division on December 13, 1864 listed the 8th/16th/28th Tennessee Regiments with 258 total effectives; their brigade, Carter's (Maney's) Brigade, numbered 654 effectives. Strahl's Brigade had 497 effectives on the same date. These brigades, combined, totaled 1,151 on the 13th, yet by the 20th of December had decreased in number by 853 men, mostly captured.

4-Clark had to destroy his shelter half, in the retreat from Tennessee, in order to wrap his feet.(#25)

18-"Before we got to Tullahoma we got a man to pilot us across the railroad track two or three miles north of town as there was a lot of Yankees there. The man had a horse that I rode as I could not travel as well as the rest of the bunch. It was an awful cold night and the ground was covered with snow and ice. We had traveled two or three miles when we heard a lot of cavalry approaching, so we all hurried to one side of the road. The horse I was riding got loose and started for his home. We could hear him running on the frozen ground for a mile or so. We laid on the ice till the cavalry had passed. We found out afterwards that it was some Rebel cavalry going south."(June 14)

18-"We crossed the railroad all right and continued on our way until we arrived at the house of a man I knew who lived about ten miles from my home. We stayed the balance of the night with him and after breakfast crossed Duck river and on towards home, crossing the Manchester and Buck Grove road about a mile north of Manchester. We saw in crossing the road a lot of Yankee pickets about a quarter of a mile from where we crossed. I was then within two miles of home. When within a mile of home I met my mother who was then visiting a son, and went on home with her. The boys who were still with me went on to their homes. I had not seen my mother since Bragg retreated from Tullahoma, or heard from her either. I stopped around home for some time keeping out of sight of the Yankees that frequently passed. I found everything in bad shape. The farm was all run down stock all gone, but the negroes were still at home and worked reasonably well, but they had little to live on. When they would raise a crop the soldiers would take it. I remember that the table ware consisted of tin plates and the tumblers were the lower parts of glass bottles cut in two by drawing a yarn string around them until they were hot and by pouring water on them they would come apart."(June 14)


18-"I stayed around home and kept out of sight of the Yankees that passed that way from one place to another, until a neighbor, a union man, advised me that I had better go with him to headquarters at Tullahoma, and report, which I did. This man’s name was R. E. Lasiter, and he was a great help to all of us southern people. He had great influence with the Yankee commander and saved many lives. The commander was named Milroy and another was Gen. Payne. He was a regular mean one and if someone like Lasiter did not interfere they generally got shot in short order after reporting to headquarters."(June 28)

4-The Sixteenth withdrew to Corinth, then on to Mobile, Montgomery, Atlanta and to Augusta. There they crossed the river to Hamburg, South Carolina and left the R.R.. From there the men made the march through the pine forests of N. C. of which there is no good record by members of the Sixteenth. Clark described this march as "dreamy", as there were no memorable places or events along the way. (#25)

18-"The authorities had me report down at Tullahoma once a month, which I did for several times, when they sent me down to Nashville and for several days I had to report every day. They finally got tired of that, I suppose, and the sent me to the penitentiary for safe keeping. The prisoners in the pen were of all sorts and sizes, Rebels, Yankees, citizens, negroes and what not. There was one old citizen in there, I remember, who would stand around and cuss the Yankees from morning till night. There was also a Yankee who wore a Mother Hubbard made of a barrel, with a hole in the head of it just large enough for his head to go through, and it was labeled "Thief." … Then there was a lot of negroes with ball and chain on their legs. There was a long shed that we all would stay during the day and sleep in the building at night. We got two meals a day, one in the morning and one about 3 p.m. We would get bread and some other stuff and a lot of coffee if you had any vessel to put it in. If you did not, you got no coffee. At the afternoon meal you could get bread and beans or soup, if you had something to put them in. I had a Yankee canteen and cut the top off, and fared very well after that. Most everyone in the pen, I mean the war prisoners, gambled from morning till night. After remaining there two or three weeks myself and a number of others took some kind of an oath and came home. I was all right then and was not afraid to meet any Yankees that might be passing through the country. Then is when I settled down to farming."(June 28)

4-Bentonville-Clark stated that they came very near killing every single man of one Yankee regiment.(#25)

4-At least Clark was saddened to hear of Lincoln's assassination. Although he had slandered the man in the past, he stated he would gladly have placed flowers on his coffin.(#26)

7-"About this time all of the Tennessee infantry in the army were consolidated into four large regiments and formed into one brigade. In this brigade were clustered the tattered flags of the various regiments, each one of which had won undying fame upon the battlefields of the South, and in one organization were brought together the true and tried veterans who, in the closing hours of the struggle, represented the flower and chivalry of Tennessee. To General Palmer was accorded the signal honor and proud distinction of commanding a body of men, than which the world has never known a nobler, braver band of patriots".(368)

5-Thompson had a slow recovery from his wounds, and recorded, "I arrived in Smithfield, North Carolina, as the Tennessee troops were being consolidated into one brigade of three regiments and placed under the command of General J. B. Palmer. The 8th, 16th, 28th, 38th and 51st Tennessee Regiments were consolidated with a part of Maney’s Brigade into one regiment and placed under command of Colonel Fields. Our old 16th was consolidated into two companies, one commanded by Captain Hill of General Carter’s staff; the other, by Captain Frank York. A. F. Claywell was Adjutant of the consolidated regiment, and made its last official report soon after consolidation. Surrender followed in a few days, at Greensboro, North Carolina, on April 26, 1865."(29)

7-April 26-"It was considerately arranged that the Confederates should not be mortified at this trying time by the presence of the enemy. The paroles were sent to the different regiments signed by the officers, and distributed among the men. The brigade moved slowly and sadly out into an open field where the officers sheathed their swords and the men silently stacked their trusty guns".(368)

4-"All was quiet in line & many brave boys shed tears. I was glad & sorry too." The men drew $1.25 each.(#26)

4-One evening, the men called on Gen. Cheatham for some words of encouragement. At first he declined, but shortly, he agreed and gave a short speech telling the men to go home and be loyal citizens.(#27)

4-We were anxious to start, which caused us to look westward across the Blue Ridge towards old Tennessee, our native land. We were yet subject to orders & waited for the order, "lets go home". We were allowed to bring any personal effects we had & started.(#28)

7-Gen. Johnston allowed Gen. Palmer to transport the Tennesseans home by a route of his choosing. The route took the men, "... via Salisbury and Asheville, to Greenville, East Tennessee, the nearest railroad point".(368)

4-"On our arrival at Salisbury, General Cheatham had us form in line, & he passed in front from right to left, with tears running down his cheeks as he said "Farewell"." "We then left the Rail Road and marched westward." "On reaching Catawba River in Rowan County, we found the recent rains had swollen it, and was pretty full to wade, but that was the only chance. We pulled off our rags & plunged in and when we crossed, redressed & started again, & in a few minutes came to another fork of the river fuller than the first, but we splunged it & pulled on westward. Finally we arrived at the eastern foot of Blue Ridge, and as we came up the ridge, were in a terrible hail storm. I believe we camped one night on the ridge. The high peak, north of the place we crossed looked as though it might be inhabited by Angels. The road down the western slope of the ridge to Ashville on French Broad River was good. …marching northwestwardly & finally arrived at Greeneville East Tennessee. It had been 24 days since we surrendered. We had not heard a steam whistle since we left Salisbury, N.C. & the long march made us eager for R.R. transportation."(#28)

7-"In approaching Greeneville the surrendered Tennesseans were mortified and angered beyond expression by the wanton and unprovoked insults to which they were subjected by negro soldiers who crowded upon each side of the road with their guns in their hands".(369)

4-"We saw good many Negro soldiers with the blue uniforms on, & occasionally we heard a saucy Negro say "O Yes, de bottom rail on top now." They made fun of our rags, & my blood has never quit boiling yet."(#28)

7-"From Greeneville the brigade was taken by rail to Chattanooga, thence into middle Tennessee, the men leaving the trains at the points along the way nearest their homes".(369)

4-"On the 21st (May) we boarded cars at Chattanooga & came on towards Nashville. There were but few of us & we got off the cars at Deckard & came out a short distance & camped until next morning the 22nd. We then came by Viola & crossed Collins River at Shell’s Ford (I believe). Rans Martin, Andy Jones, John Patton, J. T. Hillis & I now forget who else were with me." Clark arrived at home, finally, on the 23rd of May, 1865.(#28)

8-"During the war my original company was consolidated with other companies of the regiment and of other regiments, and I ceased to be its Captain, and after that to the end of the war served in other departments, and sometimes in battle acted as Major of our regiment. It is now impossible to account for all of the men I took out, or for the casualties that occurred among them. Many were wounded, some disabled for life; and some of the wounded have since died, as is thought, from the effects of wounds they received-quite a number of them died from sickness. I think that three-fourths of those who were left with me in the company were killed, wounded, and died from sickness. As a class, I notice that those who were soldiers-at least those who made good and true soldiers-are a thrifty, progressive part of the community since the war, and almost without exception a law-abiding people."(344)

6/4-Recalling life in the trenches in 1864, Reverend De Witt, attending a veteran reunion, stated that, "One sterling looking fellow by the name of West shook hands with me cordially, and said: 'You don't know me, but I know you. I heard you preach many a time on the trenches.' His face had a big smile on it, and I reciprocated it. His words did me good".

5-"As I have had such few victories in my military life, I've had but little rejoicing over victories. Truly, we won some splendid victories--such as Perryville, Kentucky; the first day at Murfreesboro, Tennessee; Chickamauga, and Franklin, Tennessee. But they failed to be improved, and fell to pieces like a rope of sand. But a lot of our men were gone at every engagement and no adequate means to replace them. We did not have the men to improve a victory when we won it. But our soldiers stood like lions at bay ready to strike to the last ditch."(21)

(22)- In the end, it is discovered that not only the white men of the mountains participated in this four year trial. G. W. Drake and Charles Ware, black men, claimed service with the regiment as well. More than likely serving in the capacity of a servant, these men would rate the respect and pension of a Confederate soldier as well.(115 & 119)

6/13- Of the 148 men who served in Co. A, at least twenty-two were Cantrells. Three killed at Perryville-one at Franklin, two wounded at Perryville and one at Murfressboro. All of them were closely related.

(6/10)- Lawson W. Smith PHOTO. (565)

6-12- "A Faithful Watch And Its History.-George W. Parks, of Irving College, Tenn., has in his possession a silver watch with a unique history. In 1860 I. M. Parks bought the watch at McMinnville, Tenn., for $48, carrying it with him when he went out as captain of Company H, 16th Tennessee Regiment. In May, 1861, Captain Parks was killed in the battle of Chickamauga. Captain Etter took charge of the watch and turned it over to Captain Tipps, who was soon afterwards killed. Captain Etter again secured the watch and placed it in General Shelley’s trunk, from which it was stolen by a negro boy whojoined the Federal forces. General Shelley’s command captured the boy and watch, and again Captain Etter took charge of the watch, kept it until the war was over, and brought it home with him to the father of Captain Parks. After the death of the father, it was bought by George W. Parks, and it is still a good time keeper."(604)

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